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      Age-related and sex-related changes in perfusion index in response to noxious electrical stimulation in healthy subjects

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          Abstract

          Background

          Even though pain is a subjective phenomenon, its objective evaluation in humans is important because subjects requiring pain evaluation may be unable to describe their pain intensity because of decreased awareness or impaired cognitive function. Previous reports indicate that the perfusion index (PI), which is calculated from pulse oximeter waveforms, has some utility in assessing pain. However, age-associated and sex-associated differences in change of PI have hitherto not been evaluated for assessment of pain. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the utility of age-related differences in PI change among healthy volunteers subjected to electrical stimulation.

          Methods

          We measured PI and pulse rate in 70 healthy volunteers exposed to gradually increasing electrical stimulation. The subjects were classified into four groups, ie, young men, young women, aged men, and aged women. Stimulation was stopped when subjects reached their pain tolerance threshold. The average PI and pulse rate were calculated 10 seconds before and after electrical stimulation and compared across the four groups. Changes in PI and pulse rate were analyzed using the paired t-test.

          Results

          The PI was significantly decreased in response to pain stimulation in young men ( P<0.0001), young women ( P=0.0002), and aged men ( P=0.0158). However, aged women failed to show significant changes in PI before or after stimulation. The pulse rate was not significantly altered in any of the groups.

          Conclusion

          PI may be an independent parameter reflecting the perception of noxious stimuli and could be used for objective evaluation of pain perception in healthy volunteers, except when it is used for pain evaluation in elderly women.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Epidemiology of chronic non-malignant pain in Denmark.

          A series of health surveys are conducted every sixth to seventh year in Denmark. In the most recent survey of 2000, a national random sample (>16 years) was drawn from the Danish Central Personal Register. Out of the original sample 12,333 (74%) were interviewed and of these 10,066 returned a completed questionnaire (SF-36). The present study includes only those who both took part in the interview and the postal questionnaire. Cancer patients were excluded. Persons suffering from chronic pain (PG) were identified through the question 'Do you have chronic/long lasting pain lasting 6 months or more'? An overall chronic pain prevalence of 19% was found -16% for men and 21% for women. Prevalence of chronic pain increased with increasing age. Persons >/=67 years had 3.9 higher odds of suffering from chronic pain than persons in the age group 16-24 years. Compared with married persons, divorced or separated persons had 1.5 higher odds of chronic pain. Odds for chronic pain were 1.9 higher among those with an education of less than 10 years compared with individuals with an education of 13 years or more. During a 14-day period reporters of chronic pain had an average of 0.8 days (range 0-10) lost due to illness compared with an average of 0.4 days (range 0-10) for the control group (CG) (Odds Ratio (OR)) 2.0). Persons with a job which required high physical strain were more likely to report chronic pain compared with those with a sedentary job (OR 2.2). The odds of quitting one's job because of ill health were seven times higher among people belonging to the PG. A strong association between chronic pain and poor self-rated health was also demonstrated. The PG had twice as many contacts with various health professionals compared with the CG, and the health care system was, on average, utilised 25% more (overall contacts) by the PG than by the general population. Among the persons in the PG, 33% were not satisfied with the examinations carried out in connection with their pain condition and 40% were not satisfied with the treatment offered. Nearly 130,000 adults, corresponding to 3% of the Danish population, use opioids on a regular basis. Opioids are used by 12% of the PG.
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            Prevalence and characteristics of chronic musculoskeletal pain in Japan

            Background This cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain epidemiologic data on chronic musculoskeletal pain in the Japanese people, and with it a better understanding of the actual conditions and problems involved. Methods A questionnaire covering basic information, chronic musculoskeletal pain, daily life, quality of life, and social loss was prepared and mailed to 11507 individuals aged 18 years or older. Subjects were selected randomly nationwide in accordance with the demographic composition of Japan. Results The prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain was 15.4%. The prevalence was highest in people in their 30s to 50s. Pain occurred most frequently in the low back, neck, shoulder, and knee. Among symptomatic subjects, 42% sought treatment, by visiting a medical institution (19%), taking folk remedies (20%), or both (3%). Treatment was generally prolonged, with 70% of those treated reporting treatment durations of more than a year. Although 69% reported that their symptoms had improved, 30% reported unchanged or aggravated symptoms and dissatisfaction with treatment. Among symptomatic subjects, a high percentage of both men and women had lost jobs, left school, been absent from work or school, or had changed jobs. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) were disturbed in men, and the instrumental ADL (IADL) score was low in women. SF-36 scale scores were significantly lower in every area for subjects with chronic pain. Conclusions Chronic musculoskeletal pain does not necessarily improve even with prolonged treatment. It adversely affects daily life and both physical and mental health. Because those suffering pain often increasingly need assistance in daily activities, people around them are also affected. The therapeutic system and treatment procedures for chronic musculoskeletal pain merit prompt review.
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              Assessment of surgical stress during general anaesthesia.

              Inadequate analgesia during general anaesthesia may present as undesirable haemodynamic responses. No objective measures of the adequacy of analgesia exist. We aimed at developing a simple numerical measure of the level of surgical stress in an anaesthetized patient. Sixty and 12 female patients were included in the development and validation data sets, respectively. All patients had elective surgery with propofol-remifentanil target controlled anaesthesia. Finger photoplethysmography and electrocardiography waveforms were recorded throughout anaesthesia and various waveform parameters were extracted off-line. Total surgical stress (TSS) for a patient was estimated based on stimulus intensity and remifentanil concentration. The surgical stress index (SSI) was developed to correlate with the TSS estimate in the development data set. The performance of SSI was validated within the validation data set during and before surgery, especially at skin incision and during changes of the predicted remifentanil effect-site concentration. SSI was computed as a combination of normalized heart beat interval (HBI(norm)) and plethysmographic pulse wave amplitude (PPGA(norm)): SSI = 100-(0.7*PPGA(norm)+0.3*HBI(norm)). SSI increased at skin incision and stayed higher during surgery than before surgery; SSI responded to remifentanil concentration changes and was higher at the lower concentrations of remifentanil. SSI reacts to surgical nociceptive stimuli and analgesic drug concentration changes during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. Further validation studies of SSI are needed to elucidate its usefulness during other anaesthetic and surgical conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2014
                10 February 2014
                : 7
                : 91-97
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Suita, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Pain Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan
                [4 ]Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Aya Nakae, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, 5650871, Japan, Tel +816 6879 2649, Fax +816 6879 2648, Email anakae@ 123456anes.med.osaka-u.ac.jp
                Article
                jpr-7-091
                10.2147/JPR.S57140
                3926458
                © 2014 Nishimura et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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