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Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

Journal of the American College of Nutrition

blood, Adult, Antioxidants, metabolism, Beverages, Biphenyl Compounds, Diet, Double-Blind Method, Female, Flavonoids, pharmacology, Fruit, chemistry, Humans, Iron, Male, Malus, Phenols, Picrates, Plant Extracts, Polyphenols, Quercetin, Reference Values, Uric Acid

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      To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in healthy subjects; this was caused by the fructose-induced rise of serum uric acid levels, but was not due to the presence of antioxidant polyphenols in juice. Thus, short-term consumption of apple juice seems not to be the effective dietary intervention to augment plasma antioxidant activity due to the concomitant possibility for uric acid to be a risk factor for several diseases, as verified by other authors.

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