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      Human Monoclonal Antibodies Potently Neutralize Zika Virus and Select for Escape Mutations on the Lateral Ridge of the Envelope Protein

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          ABSTRACT

          The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has been causing epidemic outbreaks on a global scale. Virus infection can result in severe disease in humans, including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Here, we characterized monoclonal antibodies isolated from a patient with an active Zika virus infection that potently neutralized virus infection in Vero cells at the nanogram-per-milliliter range. In addition, these antibodies enhanced internalization of virions into human leukemia K562 cells in vitro, indicating their possible ability to cause antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. Escape variants of the ZIKV MR766 strain to a potently neutralizing antibody, AC10, exhibited an amino acid substitution at residue S368 in the lateral ridge region of the envelope protein. Analysis of publicly availably ZIKV sequences revealed the S368 site to be conserved among the vast majority (97.6%) of circulating strains. We validated the importance of this residue by engineering a recombinant virus with an S368R point mutation that was unable to be fully neutralized by AC10. Four out of the 12 monoclonal antibodies tested were also unable to neutralize the virus with the S368R mutation, suggesting this region to be an important immunogenic epitope during human infection. Last, a time-of-addition infection assay further validated the escape variant and showed that all monoclonal antibodies inhibited virus binding to the cell surface. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the lateral ridge region of the envelope protein is likely an immunodominant, neutralizing epitope.

          IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a global health threat causing severe disease in humans, including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Here, we analyzed the human monoclonal antibody response to acute ZIKV infection and found that neutralizing antibodies could not elicit Fc-mediated immune effector functions but could potentiate antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. We further identified critical epitopes involved with neutralization by generating and characterizing escape variants by whole-genome sequencing. We demonstrate that the lateral ridge region, particularly the S368 amino acid site, is critical for neutralization by domain III-specific antibodies.

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          Most cited references 45

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          WebLogo: a sequence logo generator.

          WebLogo generates sequence logos, graphical representations of the patterns within a multiple sequence alignment. Sequence logos provide a richer and more precise description of sequence similarity than consensus sequences and can rapidly reveal significant features of the alignment otherwise difficult to perceive. Each logo consists of stacks of letters, one stack for each position in the sequence. The overall height of each stack indicates the sequence conservation at that position (measured in bits), whereas the height of symbols within the stack reflects the relative frequency of the corresponding amino or nucleic acid at that position. WebLogo has been enhanced recently with additional features and options, to provide a convenient and highly configurable sequence logo generator. A command line interface and the complete, open WebLogo source code are available for local installation and customization. Copyright 2004 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
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            Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.

            Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome.
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              Zika Virus and Birth Defects--Reviewing the Evidence for Causality.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Virology
                J Virol
                American Society for Microbiology
                0022-538X
                1098-5514
                July 15 2019
                June 28 2019
                May 01 2019
                : 93
                : 14
                10.1128/JVI.00405-19
                © 2019
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