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      Pituitary Function after High-Dose 177Lu-DOTATATE Therapy and Long-Term Follow-Up

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          Introduction: The pituitary gland has a high expression of somatostatin receptors and is therefore a potential organ at risk for radiation-induced toxicity after <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE treatment. Objective: To study changes in pituitary function in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) treated with dosimetry-based <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE to detect possible late toxicity. Methods: 68 patients from a phase II clinical trial of dosimetry-based, individualized <sup>177</sup>Lu-DOTATATE therapy were included in this analysis. Patients had received a median of 5 (range 3–9) treatment cycles of 7.4 GBq/cycle. Median follow-up was 30 months (range 11–89). The GH/IGF-1 axis, gonadotropins, and adrenal and thyroid axes were analyzed at baseline and on a yearly basis thereafter. Percent changes in hormonal levels over time were analyzed statistically using a linear mixed model and described graphically using box plots. The absorbed radiation dose to the pituitary was estimated based on post-therapeutic imaging, and the results analyzed versus percent change in IGF-1 levels over time. Results: A statistically significant decrease in IGF-1 levels was found ( p < 0.005), which correlated with the number of treatment cycles ( p = 0.008) and the absorbed radiation dose ( p = 0.03). A similar decrease, although non-significant, was seen in gonadotropins in postmenopausal women, while in men there was an increase during the first years after therapy, after which the levels returned to baseline. No change was observed in the adrenal or thyroid axes. Conclusions: No signs of severe endocrine disorders were detected, although a significant decrease in the GH/IGF-1 axis was found, where dosimetric analyses indicated radiation-induced damage to the pituitary gland as a probable cause.

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          Phase 3 Trial of (177)Lu-Dotatate for Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors.

          Background Patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors who have had disease progression during first-line somatostatin analogue therapy have limited therapeutic options. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of lutetium-177 ((177)Lu)-Dotatate in patients with advanced, progressive, somatostatin-receptor-positive midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Methods We randomly assigned 229 patients who had well-differentiated, metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors to receive either (177)Lu-Dotatate (116 patients) at a dose of 7.4 GBq every 8 weeks (four intravenous infusions, plus best supportive care including octreotide long-acting repeatable [LAR] administered intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg) ((177)Lu-Dotatate group) or octreotide LAR alone (113 patients) administered intramuscularly at a dose of 60 mg every 4 weeks (control group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and the side-effect profile. The final analysis of overall survival will be conducted in the future as specified in the protocol; a prespecified interim analysis of overall survival was conducted and is reported here. Results At the data-cutoff date for the primary analysis, the estimated rate of progression-free survival at month 20 was 65.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.0 to 76.8) in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 10.8% (95% CI, 3.5 to 23.0) in the control group. The response rate was 18% in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group versus 3% in the control group (P<0.001). In the planned interim analysis of overall survival, 14 deaths occurred in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 26 in the control group (P=0.004). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia occurred in 1%, 2%, and 9%, respectively, of patients in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group as compared with no patients in the control group, with no evidence of renal toxic effects during the observed time frame. Conclusions Treatment with (177)Lu-Dotatate resulted in markedly longer progression-free survival and a significantly higher response rate than high-dose octreotide LAR among patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Preliminary evidence of an overall survival benefit was seen in an interim analysis; confirmation will be required in the planned final analysis. Clinically significant myelosuppression occurred in less than 10% of patients in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group. (Funded by Advanced Accelerator Applications; NETTER-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01578239 ; EudraCT number 2011-005049-11 .).
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            Long-term evaluation of renal toxicity after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC and 177Lu-DOTATATE: the role of associated risk factors.

            Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumours with (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE is promising. The kidney is the critical organ and despite renal protection, function loss may become evident years later. The aim of this study was to analyse renal parameters in patients who had undergone dosimetry before PRRT. Among those in protocols at our institution, 28 patients were considered: 23 received (90)Y-DOTATOC (3.8-29.2 GBq, median 12.2) and five received (177)Lu-DOTATATE (20.7-29.2 GBq, median 23.2). Patients were followed up after therapy for creatinine and creatinine clearance loss (CCL) for 3-97 months (median 30). Renal doses and bio-effective doses (BED) were calculated (MIRD, LQ model). After (90)Y-DOTATOC toxicity on creatinine according to NCI criteria occurred in nine cases (seven grade 1, one grade 2, one grade 3), CCL at 1 year was >5% in 12 cases and >10% in eight. A 28-Gy BED threshold was observed in patients with risk factors (mainly hypertension and diabetes), while it was 40 Gy in patients without risk factors. Probably due to the low number of patients, despite the absence of severe toxicity after hyper-fractionated PRRT, clear correlations between fractionation and toxicity could not be found. After (177)Lu-DOTATATE, no toxicity occurred in 1-2 year follow-up; CCL at 1 year >5% occurred in three patients and >10% in two. Our results indicate the importance of clinical screening for risk factors: In this case, a BED <28 Gy is recommended. Fractionation of therapy is important in order to decrease toxicity, and further studies are needed to evaluate its clinical impact.
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              Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults: relation to age, sex, stage of puberty, testicular size, and body mass index.

              Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increase with age and pubertal development. The large variation in circulating IGF-I levels in adolescence makes it difficult to use the IGF-I value of a single child in the assessment of his growth status. In addition, the interference of IGF-binding proteins in many IGF-I assays contributes to this problem. We measured IGF-I in acid-ethanol-extracted serum from 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults, employing a RIA that reduces interference of IGF-binding proteins by using monoiodinated Tyr31-[125I]des-(1-3)IGF-I as radioligand. Mean serum IGF-I concentrations increased slowly in prepubertal children from 80-200 micrograms/L with a further steep increase during puberty to approximately 500 micrograms/L. After puberty, a subsequent continuous fall in circulating IGF-I levels was apparent throughout adulthood to a mean of 100 micrograms/L at the age of 80 yr (P < 0.0001). Girls had maximal IGF-I levels at 14.5 yr of age, whereas boys had peak IGF-I levels 1 yr later. This is almost 2 yr later than average peak height velocity. The large variation in serum IGF-I levels during puberty was diminished when data were separated according to sex and Tanner stage of puberty. Interestingly, we found a significant variation with age within the Tanner stages; there was an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations with age in the early pubertal stages and a decrease in the late stages (P < 0.05). Serum IGF-I increased concomitantly with increasing testicular volume. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum IGF-I levels predicted height velocity in the following year (r = 0.33; P < 0.0001). Body mass index did not correlate significantly with serum IGF-I in prepubertal children in a multiple regression analysis. In conclusion, there was a significant variation in serum IGF-I levels with age within a given Tanner stage of puberty in addition to the well known increase with increasing age or pubertal stage. Accordingly, the effects of sex, age, and puberty on serum IGF-I cannot be separated into simple additive components when studying 1030 children in a cross-sectional design. Thus, the age-, sex-, and puberty-corrected IGF-I values may, in fact, improve the use of serum IGF-I as a diagnostic tool to distinguish between a child with retarded puberty and a GH-deficient individual.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2021
                08 April 2020
                : 111
                : 4
                : 344-353
                aDepartment of Clinical Sciences, Oncology, and Pathology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                bMedical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                cDepartment of Hematology, Oncology, and Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
                dDepartment of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
                eClinical Studies Sweden, Forum South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
                fDepartment of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                gDepartment of Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Anna Sundlöv, Department of Clinical Sciences, Oncology, and Pathology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, SE–221 85 Lund (Sweden), anna.sundlov@med.lu.se
                507761 Neuroendocrinology 2021;111:344–353
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Research Article


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