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Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., M.R.C.P.C.H., F.H.K.A.M. 1 , , M.D., F.A.C.P., F.H.K.A.M. 2 , , M.B.B.S., M.R.C.P., F.H.K.A.M. 1

AJP Reports

Thieme Medical Publishers

Bordetella bronchiseptica, extremely low birth weight, preterm, neonate

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      Abstract

      Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a common veterinary pathogen. In both domestic and wild animals, this bacterium causes respiratory infections including infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Human infections are rare and have been documented in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe an extremely-low-birth-weight infant with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. This is the first report that describes the microorganism's responsibility in causing nosocomial infection in a preterm neonate. He recovered uneventfully after a course of meropenem. It is possible that the bacteria colonize the respiratory tracts of our health care workers or parents who may have had contact with pets and then transmitted the bacterium to our patient. Follow-up until 21 months of age showed normal growth and development. He did not suffer from any significant residual respiratory disease.

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      Most cited references 15

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      Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica.

      Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are closely related Gram-negative beta-proteobacteria that colonize the respiratory tracts of mammals. B. pertussis is a strict human pathogen of recent evolutionary origin and is the primary etiologic agent of whooping cough. B. parapertussis can also cause whooping cough, and B. bronchiseptica causes chronic respiratory infections in a wide range of animals. We sequenced the genomes of B. bronchiseptica RB50 (5,338,400 bp; 5,007 predicted genes), B. parapertussis 12822 (4,773,551 bp; 4,404 genes) and B. pertussis Tohama I (4,086,186 bp; 3,816 genes). Our analysis indicates that B. parapertussis and B. pertussis are independent derivatives of B. bronchiseptica-like ancestors. During the evolution of these two host-restricted species there was large-scale gene loss and inactivation; host adaptation seems to be a consequence of loss, not gain, of function, and differences in virulence may be related to loss of regulatory or control functions.
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        Molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of respiratory infections due to Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella subspecies.

        Bordetella respiratory infections are common in people (B. pertussis) and in animals (B. bronchiseptica). During the last two decades, much has been learned about the virulence determinants, pathogenesis, and immunity of Bordetella. Clinically, the full spectrum of disease due to B. pertussis infection is now understood, and infections in adolescents and adults are recognized as the reservoir for cyclic outbreaks of disease. DTaP vaccines, which are less reactogenic than DTP vaccines, are now in general use in many developed countries, and it is expected that the expansion of their use to adolescents and adults will have a significant impact on reducing pertussis and perhaps decrease the circulation of B. pertussis. Future studies should seek to determine the cause of the unique cough which is associated with Bordetella respiratory infections. It is also hoped that data gathered from molecular Bordetella research will lead to a new generation of DTaP vaccines which provide greater efficacy than is provided by today's vaccines.
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          Human infections associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica.

          This study examines the potential of Bordetella bronchiseptica to act as a human pathogen. After encountering two patients from whom B. bronchiseptica was isolated, we searched the literature and found 23 reports in which a human infection was reported in association with B. bronchiseptica. As a basis for evaluating these cases, we summarize the literature about the current microbiological status of B. bronchiseptica, the pathology and pathogenic mechanisms associated with the microorganism, and the likelihood of it acting as a commensal or colonizer. From this review we conclude that B. bronchiseptica has been rarely isolated from humans despite their considerable exposure to animal sources. Evidence suggests that B. bronchiseptica may be rarely encountered as a commensal or colonizer of the respiratory tract of humans and rarely in association with infection. When found as a probable pathogen, most infections have been respiratory tract in origin and have occurred in severely compromised hosts.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China
            [2 ]Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China
            Author notes
            Address for correspondence and reprint requests Yuk Joseph Ting, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., M.R.C.P.C.H., F.H.K.A.M. Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia 1R47-4480 Oak Street, Vancouver BC V6H 3V4Canada tingyukjoseph@ 123456yahoo.com.hk
            Journal
            AJP Rep
            AJP Rep
            AJP Reports
            Thieme Medical Publishers (333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. )
            2157-6998
            2157-7005
            01 August 2011
            December 2011
            : 1
            : 2
            : 83-86
            23705092
            3653527
            10.1055/s-0031-1284223
            01083
            © Thieme Medical Publishers
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            Article

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