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      Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19

      research-article
      , M.D., M.P.H. , , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., M.P.H., , M.B., B.S., M.P.H., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., Ph.D., , M.D., M.P.H., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D.,   , M.B., B.S., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.B., B.S., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.B., B.S., , M.D., M.S.H.S., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , R.N., B.S.N., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., M.P.H., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., M.P.H., , Sc.M., , M.P.H., , Ph.D., , M.D., , M.D., Ph.D., , M.S., , Ph.D., , M.D., , Ph.D., , M.D., , Ph.D., , M.D.
      The New England Journal of Medicine
      Massachusetts Medical Society
      Keyword part (code): 12Keyword part (keyword): Pulmonary/Critical CareKeyword part (code): 12_1Keyword part (keyword): Pulmonary/Critical Care General , 12, Pulmonary/Critical Care, Keyword part (code): 12_1Keyword part (keyword): Pulmonary/Critical Care General, 12_1, Pulmonary/Critical Care General, Keyword part (code): 18Keyword part (keyword): Infectious DiseaseKeyword part (code): 18_6Keyword part (keyword): Viral Infections , 18, Infectious Disease, Keyword part (code): 18_6Keyword part (keyword): Viral Infections, 18_6, Viral Infections
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          Abstract

          Background

          Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known.

          Methods

          We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time to recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15.

          Results

          A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned to combination treatment and 518 to control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 to 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group and 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, −5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, −9.8 to −0.3; P=0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, −5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, −8.7 to −1.9; P=0.003).

          Conclusions

          Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04401579.)

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          Most cited references16

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          Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 — Preliminary Report

          Abstract Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory failure and death. Methods In this controlled, open-label trial comparing a range of possible treatments in patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned patients to receive oral or intravenous dexamethasone (at a dose of 6 mg once daily) for up to 10 days or to receive usual care alone. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Here, we report the preliminary results of this comparison. Results A total of 2104 patients were assigned to receive dexamethasone and 4321 to receive usual care. Overall, 482 patients (22.9%) in the dexamethasone group and 1110 patients (25.7%) in the usual care group died within 28 days after randomization (age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.93; P<0.001). The proportional and absolute between-group differences in mortality varied considerably according to the level of respiratory support that the patients were receiving at the time of randomization. In the dexamethasone group, the incidence of death was lower than that in the usual care group among patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (29.3% vs. 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. 26.2%; rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94) but not among those who were receiving no respiratory support at randomization (17.8% vs. 14.0%; rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.55). Conclusions In patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research and others; RECOVERY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04381936; ISRCTN number, 50189673.)
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            COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

            As of March 12, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been confirmed in 125 048 people worldwide, carrying a mortality of approximately 3·7%, 1 compared with a mortality rate of less than 1% from influenza. There is an urgent need for effective treatment. Current focus has been on the development of novel therapeutics, including antivirals and vaccines. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subgroup of patients with severe COVID-19 might have a cytokine storm syndrome. We recommend identification and treatment of hyperinflammation using existing, approved therapies with proven safety profiles to address the immediate need to reduce the rising mortality. Current management of COVID-19 is supportive, and respiratory failure from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of mortality. 2 Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is an under-recognised, hyperinflammatory syndrome characterised by a fulminant and fatal hypercytokinaemia with multiorgan failure. In adults, sHLH is most commonly triggered by viral infections 3 and occurs in 3·7–4·3% of sepsis cases. 4 Cardinal features of sHLH include unremitting fever, cytopenias, and hyperferritinaemia; pulmonary involvement (including ARDS) occurs in approximately 50% of patients. 5 A cytokine profile resembling sHLH is associated with COVID-19 disease severity, characterised by increased interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, and tumour necrosis factor-α. 6 Predictors of fatality from a recent retrospective, multicentre study of 150 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China, included elevated ferritin (mean 1297·6 ng/ml in non-survivors vs 614·0 ng/ml in survivors; p 39·4°C 49 Organomegaly None 0 Hepatomegaly or splenomegaly 23 Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly 38 Number of cytopenias * One lineage 0 Two lineages 24 Three lineages 34 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 4·0 mmol/L 64 Fibrinogen (g/L) >2·5 g/L 0 ≤2·5 g/L 30 Ferritin ng/ml 6000 ng/ml 50 Serum aspartate aminotransferase <30 IU/L 0 ≥30 IU/L 19 Haemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirate No 0 Yes 35 Known immunosuppression † No 0 Yes 18 The Hscore 11 generates a probability for the presence of secondary HLH. HScores greater than 169 are 93% sensitive and 86% specific for HLH. Note that bone marrow haemophagocytosis is not mandatory for a diagnosis of HLH. HScores can be calculated using an online HScore calculator. 11 HLH=haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. * Defined as either haemoglobin concentration of 9·2 g/dL or less (≤5·71 mmol/L), a white blood cell count of 5000 white blood cells per mm3 or less, or platelet count of 110 000 platelets per mm3 or less, or all of these criteria combined. † HIV positive or receiving longterm immunosuppressive therapy (ie, glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, azathioprine).
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              Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report

              Abstract Background Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), none have yet been shown to be efficacious. Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 with evidence of lower respiratory tract involvement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. Results A total of 1063 patients underwent randomization. The data and safety monitoring board recommended early unblinding of the results on the basis of findings from an analysis that showed shortened time to recovery in the remdesivir group. Preliminary results from the 1059 patients (538 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo) with data available after randomization indicated that those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 11 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 12), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 19) in those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.55; P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality by 14 days were 7.1% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.04). Serious adverse events were reported for 114 of the 541 patients in the remdesivir group who underwent randomization (21.1%) and 141 of the 522 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization (27.0%). Conclusions Remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 and evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04280705.)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                N Engl J Med
                N Engl J Med
                nejm
                The New England Journal of Medicine
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                11 December 2020
                : NEJMoa2031994
                Affiliations
                From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) — all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) — both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville — both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars–Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) — all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (P.G.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.S.K.) — both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to Dr. Kalil at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985400 Nebraska Medicine, Omaha, NE 68198-5400, or at akalil@ 123456unmc.edu .

                A complete list of members of the ACTT-2 Study Group is provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6489-6294
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2344-7695
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7870-2879
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4879-4941
                Article
                NJ202012110000001
                10.1056/NEJMoa2031994
                7745180
                33306283
                421ef847-d942-4488-94f7-b1aee603a54c
                Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use, except commercial resale, and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgment of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the Covid-19 pandemic or until revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, subject to existing copyright protections.

                History
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000060;
                Award ID: NCT04401579
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                2020-12-11T12:00:00-05:00
                2020
                12
                11
                12
                00
                00
                -05:00

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