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      Plant Growth Promotion by Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacillus subtilis SYST2


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          Bacterial volatiles play a significant role in promoting plant growth by regulating the synthesis or metabolism of phytohormones. In vitro and growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain SYST2 on hormone regulation and growth promotion in tomato plants. We observed a significant increase in plant biomass under both experimental conditions; we observed an increase in photosynthesis and in the endogenous contents of gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin, while a decrease in ethylene levels was noted. VOCs emitted by SYST2 were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Of 11 VOCs tested in glass jars containing plants in test tubes, only two, albuterol and 1,3-propanediole, were found to promote plant growth. Furthermore, tomato plants showed differential expression of genes involved in auxin ( SlIAA1. SlIAA3), gibberellin ( GA20ox-1), cytokinin ( SlCKX1), expansin ( Exp2, Exp9. Exp 18), and ethylene ( ACO1) biosynthesis or metabolism in roots and leaves in response to B. subtilis SYST2 VOCs. Our findings suggest that SYST2-derived VOCs promote plant growth by triggering growth hormone activity, and provide new insights into the mechanism of plant growth promotion by bacterial VOCs.

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          Hormone signalling crosstalk in plant growth regulation.

          The remarkable plasticity of plant ontogeny is shaped by hormone pathways, which not only orchestrate intrinsic developmental programs, but also convey environmental inputs. Several classes of plant hormones exist, and among them auxin, brassinosteroid and gibberellin are central for the regulation of growth in general and of cell elongation in particular. Various growth phenomena can be modulated by each of the three hormones, in a sometimes synergistic fashion, suggesting physiological redundancy and/or crosstalk between the different pathways. Whether this means that they target a common and unique transcriptome module, or rather separate growth-promoting transcriptome modules, remains unclear, however. Nevertheless, while surprisingly few molecular mediators of direct crosstalk in the proper sense have been isolated, evidence is accumulating for complex cross-regulatory relations between hormone pathways at the level of transcription, as exemplified in root meristem growth. The growing number of available genome sequences from the green lineage offers first glimpses at the evolution of hormone pathways, which can aid in understanding the multiple relationships observed between these pathways in angiosperms. The available analyses suggest that auxin, gibberellin and brassinosteroid signalling arose during land plant evolution in this order, correlating with increased morphological complexity and possibly conferring increased developmental flexibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            GC-MS SPME profiling of rhizobacterial volatiles reveals prospective inducers of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance in plants.

            Chemical and plant growth studies of Bacilli strains GB03 and IN937a revealed that the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin trigger plant growth promotion in Arabidopsis. Differences in growth promotion when cytokinin-signaling mutants are exposed to GB03 versus IN937a volatiles suggest a divergence in chemical signaling for these two bacterial strains. To provide a comprehensive chemical profile of bacterial volatiles emitted from these biologically active strains, headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with software extraction of overlapping GC-separated components was employed. Ten volatile metabolites already reported from GB03 and IN937a were identified as well as 28 compounds not previously characterized. Most of the newly identified compounds were branched-chain alcohols released from IN937a, at much higher levels than in GB03. Principal component analysis clearly separated GB03 from IN937a, with GB03 producing higher amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and butane-1-methoxy-3-methyl. The branched-chain alcohols share a similar functional motif to that of 2,3-butanediol and may afford alternative structural patterns for elicitors from bacterial sources.
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              The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development


                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                07 February 2017
                : 8
                [1] 1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education Nanjing, China
                [2] 2Jiangsu Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yunrong Chai, Northeastern University, USA

                Reviewed by: Javier Plasencia, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico; Yun Chen, Zhejiang University, China

                *Correspondence: Xuewen Gao, gaoxw@ 123456njau.edu.cn

                These authors have contributed equally and share first authorship.

                This article was submitted to Plant Microbe Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2017 Tahir, Gu, Wu, Raza, Hanif, Wu, Colman and Gao.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 11, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                bacterial vocs,bacillus subtilis syst2,growth promotion,phytohormones,albuterol,1,3-propanediole


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