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      A critical review on various feedstocks as sustainable substrates for biosurfactants production: a way towards cleaner production

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          Abstract

          The quest for a chemical surfactant substitute has been fuelled by increased environmental awareness. The benefits that biosurfactants present like biodegradability, and biocompatibility over their chemical and synthetic counterparts has contributed immensely to their popularity and use in various industries such as petrochemicals, mining, metallurgy, agrochemicals, fertilizers, beverages, cosmetics, etc. With the growing demand for biosurfactants, researchers are looking for low-cost waste materials to use them as substrates, which will lower the manufacturing costs while providing waste management services as an add-on benefit. The use of low-cost substrates will significantly reduce the cost of producing biosurfactants. This paper discusses the use of various feedstocks in the production of biosurfactants, which not only reduces the cost of waste treatment but also provides an opportunity to profit from the sale of the biosurfactant. Furthermore, it includes state-of-the-art information about employing municipal solid waste as a sustainable feedstock for biosurfactant production, which has not been simultaneously covered in many published literatures on biosurfactant production from different feedstocks. It also addresses the myriad of other issues associated with the processing of biosurfactants, as well as the methods used to address these issues and perspectives, which will move society towards cleaner production.

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          Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

          In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.
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            Biosurfactants, natural alternatives to synthetic surfactants: Physicochemical properties and applications

            Biosurfactants comprise a wide array of amphiphilic molecules synthesized by plants, animals, and microbes. The synthesis route dictates their molecular characteristics, leading to broad structural diversity and ensuing functional properties. We focus here on low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) biosurfactants of microbial origin. These are environmentally safe and biodegradable, making them attractive candidates for applications spanning cosmetics to oil recovery. Biosurfactants spontaneously adsorb at various interfaces and self-assemble in aqueous solution, resulting in useful physicochemical properties such as decreased surface and interfacial tension, low critical micellization concentrations (CMCs), and ability to solubilize hydrophobic compounds. This review highlights the relationships between biosurfactant molecular composition, structure, and their interfacial behavior. It also describes how environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and ionic strength can impact physicochemical properties and self-assembly behavior of biosurfactant-containing solutions and dispersions. Comparison between biosurfactants and their synthetic counterparts are drawn to illustrate differences in their structure-property relationships and potential benefits. Knowledge of biosurfactant properties organized along these lines is useful for those seeking to formulate so-called green or natural products with novel and useful properties.
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              Microbial strategies for bio-transforming food waste into resources

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                drsvs18@gmail.com
                Journal
                Microb Cell Fact
                Microb Cell Fact
                Microbial Cell Factories
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2859
                26 June 2021
                26 June 2021
                2021
                : 20
                : 120
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 010 India
                [2 ]GRID grid.448759.3, ISNI 0000 0004 1764 7951, Central University of Gujarat, ; Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382030 India
                [3 ]GRID grid.417638.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2194 5503, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, ; Lucknow, 226 001 India
                [4 ]GRID grid.117476.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7611, Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, , University of Technology Sydney, ; Sydney, NSW 2007 Australia
                [5 ]GRID grid.64523.36, ISNI 0000 0004 0532 3255, Department of Chemical Engineering, , National Cheng Kung University, ; Tainan, Taiwan
                [6 ]GRID grid.221309.b, ISNI 0000 0004 1764 5980, Institute of Bioresource and Agriculture, , Hong Kong Baptist University, ; Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
                [7 ]GRID grid.444828.6, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, , Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT), ; Ho Chi Minh City, 700000 Vietnam
                [8 ]Key Laboratory of Advanced Waste Treatment Technology, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh (VNU-HCM), Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, 700000 Vietnam
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6966-7768
                Article
                1613
                10.1186/s12934-021-01613-3
                8236176
                34174898
                422ba936-805e-4bd2-ac0e-990b0baf4898
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 30 April 2021
                : 15 June 2021
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Biotechnology
                biosurfactant,cleaner production,agro-industrial waste,municipal solid waste
                Biotechnology
                biosurfactant, cleaner production, agro-industrial waste, municipal solid waste

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