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      Expression of a Truncated, Kinase-Defective TGF-β Type II Receptor in Mouse Skeletal Tissue Promotes Terminal Chondrocyte Differentiation and Osteoarthritis

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          Abstract

          Members of the TGF-β superfamily are important regulators of skeletal development. TGF-βs signal through heteromeric type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases. When over-expressed, a cytoplasmically truncated type II receptor can compete with the endogenous receptors for complex formation, thereby acting as a dominant-negative mutant (DNIIR). To determine the role of TGF-βs in the development and maintenance of the skeleton, we have generated transgenic mice (MT-DNIIR-4 and -27) that express the DNIIR in skeletal tissue. DNIIR mRNA expression was localized to the periosteum/perichondrium, syno-vium, and articular cartilage. Lower levels of DNIIR mRNA were detected in growth plate cartilage. Transgenic mice frequently showed bifurcation of the xiphoid process and sternum. They also developed progressive skeletal degeneration, resulting by 4 to 8 mo of age in kyphoscoliosis and stiff and torqued joints. The histology of affected joints strongly resembled human osteo-arthritis. The articular surface was replaced by bone or hypertrophic cartilage as judged by the expression of type X collagen, a marker of hypertrophic cartilage normally absent from articular cartilage. The synovium was hyperplastic, and cartilaginous metaplasia was observed in the joint space.

          We then tested the hypothesis that TGF-β is required for normal differentiation of cartilage in vivo. By 4 and 8 wk of age, the level of type X collagen was increased in growth plate cartilage of transgenic mice relative to wild-type controls. Less proteoglycan staining was detected in the growth plate and articular cartilage matrix of transgenic mice. Mice that express DNIIR in skeletal tissue also demonstrated increased Indian hedgehog (IHH) expression. IHH is a secreted protein that is expressed in chondrocytes that are committed to becoming hypertrophic. It is thought to be involved in a feedback loop that signals through the periosteum/ perichondrium to inhibit cartilage differentiation. The data suggest that TGF-β may be critical for multifaceted maintenance of synovial joints. Loss of responsiveness to TGF-β promotes chondrocyte terminal differentiation and results in development of degenerative joint disease resembling osteoarthritis in humans.

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease.

            Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional growth factor that has profound regulatory effects on many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of the TGF-beta 1 gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells enables mice to be generated that carry the disrupted allele. Animals homozygous for the mutated TGF-beta 1 allele show no gross developmental abnormalities, but about 20 days after birth they succumb to a wasting syndrome accompanied by a multifocal, mixed inflammatory cell response and tissue necrosis, leading to organ failure and death. TGF-beta 1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.
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              Inactivation of the type II TGF-beta receptor in colon cancer cells with microsatellite instability.

              Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell growth. Human colon cancer cell lines with high rates of microsatellite instability were found to harbor mutations in the type II TGF-beta receptor (RII) gene. Eight such examples, due to three different mutations, were identified. The mutations were clustered within small repeated sequences in the RII gene, were accompanied by the absence of cell surface RII receptors, and were usually associated with small amounts of RII transcript. RII mutation, by inducing the escape of cells from TGF-beta-mediated growth control, links DNA repair defects with a specific pathway of tumor progression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                20 October 1997
                : 139
                : 2
                : 541-552
                Affiliations
                [* ]Department of Cell Biology and the Vanderbilt Cancer Center, and []Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232; [§ ]Department of Growth and Development and Anatomy, Programs in Cell Biology and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143; []Division of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Laboratory, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas 72709
                Article
                2139797
                9334355
                422f590a-785a-48c0-bad8-5c0254d4f8b9
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology

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