4
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract as an “add-on” treatment to metformin for patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot clinical study

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background and aim

          Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract has shown to be beneficial in experimental models of metabolic and inflammatory disorders such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MTS). The objective of this pilot clinical study was to evaluate the effects of GKB extract as an “add-on” treatment with metformin (Met) in MTS patients.

          Patients and methods

          We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical study in subjects with MTS. Forty patients completed the 90-day clinical trial and were randomly allocated to administer either GKB extract (120 mg capsule/day) or placebo (120 mg starch/day) as an add-on treatment with their currently used doses of Met for 90 days. During the study, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), serum leptin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum glucose (FSG), insulin, insulin resistance (IR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid profile, and the inflammatory markers high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated.

          Results

          GKB extract significantly decreases HbA1c, FSG and insulin levels, IR, BMI, WC, VAI, serum leptin, and the inflammatory markers compared to baseline values. Simultaneously, GKB did not negatively affect the functions of the liver, kidney, and hematopoietic system.

          Conclusion

          The use of GKB extract as an adjuvant with Met was effective in improving the outcome of patients with MTS.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and CNS functions: basic studies and clinical applications.

           F. DeFeudis,  K Drieu (2000)
          The effects of EGb 761 on the CNS underlie one of its major therapeutic indications; i.e., individuals suffering from deteriorating cerebral mechanisms related to age-associated impairments of memory, attention and other cognitive functions. EGb 761 is currently used as symptomatic treatment for cerebral insufficiency that occurs during normal ageing or which may be due to degenerative dementia, vascular dementia or mixed forms of both, and for neurosensory disturbances. Depressive symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aged non-Alzheimer patients may also respond to treatment with EGb 761 since this extract has an "anti-stress" effect. Basic and clinical studies, conducted both in vitro and in vivo, support these beneficial neuroprotective effects of EGb 761. EGb 761 has several major actions; it enhances cognition, improves blood rheology and tissue metabolism, and opposes the detrimental effects of ischaemia. Several mechanisms of action are useful in explaining how EGb 761 benefits patients with AD and other age-related, neurodegenerative disorders. In animals, EGb 761 possesses antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities, it reverses age-related losses in brain alpha 1-adrenergic, 5-HT1A and muscarinic receptors, protects against ischaemic neuronal death, preserves the function of the hippocampal mossy fiber system, increases hippocampal high-affinity choline uptake, inhibits the down-regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, enhances neuronal plasticity, and counteracts the cognitive deficits that follow stress or traumatic brain injury. Identified chemical constituents of EGb 761 have been associated with certain actions. Both flavonoid and ginkgolide constituents are involved in the free radical-scavenging and antioxidant effects of EGb 761 which decrease tissue levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit membrane lipid peroxidation. Regarding EGb 761-induced regulation of cerebral glucose utilization, bilobalide increases the respiratory control ratio of mitochondria by protecting against uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, thereby increasing ATP levels, a result that is supported by the finding that bilobalide increases the expression of the mitochondrial DNA-encoded COX III subunit of cytochrome oxidase. With regard to its "anti-stress" effect, EGb 761 acts via its ginkgolide constituents to decrease the expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) of the adrenal cortex.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Multifaceted therapeutic benefits of Ginkgo biloba L.: chemistry, efficacy, safety, and uses.

            The new age of nutraceuticals is now embracing the centuries old herbal extract of Ginkgo biloba (Mantissa Plantarum Altera, 1771, Ginkgoceae). The standardized preparation of the Ginkgo leaf extract (EGb 761) contained 2 main bioactive constituents, flavonoid glycosides (24%) and terpene lactones (6%), along with less than 5 ppm of the allergenic component, ginkgolic acid. The Ginkgo leaf extract has been reported to have neuroprotective, anticancer, cardioprotective, stress alleviating, and memory enhancing effects and possible effects on tinnitus, geriatric complaints, and psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic mechanisms of action of the Ginkgo leaf extract are suggested to be through its antioxidant, antiplatelet, antihypoxic, antiedemic, hemorrheologic, and microcirculatory actions, where the flavonoid and the terpenoid constituents may act in a complementary manner. Toxicity studies show that the Ginkgo leaf extract is relatively safe for consumption, although a few side effects have been reported, that is, intracerebral hemorrhage, gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, dizziness, and allergic skin reactions. The use of Ginkgo leaf extract may be promising for treatment of certain conditions, although its long-term use still needs to be evaluated.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry anthocyanins improve visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma.

              Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of GBE and anthocyanins on visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) based on the vascular theory of mechanisms of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Retrospective analysis was carried out by a chart review of 332 subjects (209 men and 123 women) who were treated with anthocyanins (n=132), GBE (n=103), or no medication (control, n=97). Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) test, logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA), intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were determined before and after treatment. Complete ocular and systemic examinations were performed. The mean follow-up duration was 23.82±9.84 (range, 12-59) months; the mean anthocyanin treatment duration was 24.32±10.43 (range, 6-53) months, and the mean GBE treatment duration was 23.81±10.36 months (range, 6-59) months. After anthocyanin treatment, the mean BCVA for all eyes improved from 0.16 (±0.34) to 0.11 (±0.18) logMAR units (P=.008), and HVF mean deviation improved from -6.44 (±7.05) to -5.34 (±6.42) (P=.001). After GBE treatment, HVF mean deviation improved from -5.25 (±6.13) to -4.31 (±5.60) (P=.002). A generalized linear model demonstrated that the final BCVA was not affected by demographic differences among the groups. These results suggest that anthocyanins and GBE may be helpful in improving visual function in some individuals with NTG.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                11 July 2018
                : 14
                : 1219-1226
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq, saad.hussain@ 123456coalrafidain.edu.iq
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Saad Abdulrahman Hussain, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, 10052 Al-Mustansiriya St. 75, Baghdad, Iraq, Tel +964 79 0171 2624, Email saad.hussain@ 123456coalrafidain.edu.iq
                Article
                tcrm-14-1219
                10.2147/TCRM.S169503
                6047609
                © 2018 Aziz et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                inflammation, metabolic syndrome, metformin, adiposity, insulin resistance, ginkgo biloba

                Comments

                Comment on this article