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      Standardized Bacopa monnieri Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments through Synaptic Protein, Neurogranin, Pro-and Mature BDNF Signaling, and HPA Axis in Prenatally Stressed Rat Offspring


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          Prenatal stress (PNS) influences offspring neurodevelopment, inducing anxiety-like behavior and memory deficits. We investigated whether pretreatment of Bacopa monnieri extract (CDRI-08/BME) ameliorates PNS-induced changes in signaling molecules, and changes in the behavior of Wistar rat offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned into control (CON)/prenatal stress (PNS)/PNS and exposed to BME treatment (PNS + BME). Dams were exposed to stress by placing them in a social defeat cage, where they observed social defeat from gestational day (GD)-16–18. Pregnant rats in the PNS + BME group were given BME treatment from GD-10 to their offspring’s postnatal day (PND)-23, and to their offspring from PND-15 to -30. PNS led to anxiety-like behavior; impaired memory; increased the level of corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoid receptor, pro-apoptotic Casepase-3, and 5-HT 2C receptor; decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, synaptic proteins (synaptophysin, synaptotagmin-1), 5-HT 1A, receptor, phosphorylation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/neurogranin, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (2A,2B), postsynaptic density protein 95; and conversion of pro and mature brain derived neurotropic factor in their offspring. The antioxidant property of BME possibly inhibiting the PNS-induced changes in observed molecules, anxiety-like behavior, and memory deficits. The observed results suggest that pretreatment of BME could be an effective coping strategy to prevent PNS-induced behavioral impairments in their offspring.

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          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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              The use of the elevated plus maze as an assay of anxiety-related behavior in rodents.

              The elevated plus maze is a widely used behavioral assay for rodents and it has been validated to assess the anti-anxiety effects of pharmacological agents and steroid hormones, and to define brain regions and mechanisms underlying anxiety-related behavior. Briefly, rats or mice are placed at the junction of the four arms of the maze, facing an open arm, and entries/duration in each arm are recorded by a video-tracking system and observer simultaneously for 5 min. Other ethological parameters (i.e., rears, head dips and stretched-attend postures) can also be observed. An increase in open arm activity (duration and/or entries) reflects anti-anxiety behavior. In our laboratory, rats or mice are exposed to the plus maze on one occasion; thus, results can be obtained in 5 min per rodent.

                Author and article information

                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                04 December 2020
                December 2020
                : 9
                : 12
                : 1229
                Department of Animal Science, Behavioural Neuroscience Laboratory, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, India; sangarik@ 123456bdu.ac.in
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: emmanuvel1972@ 123456yahoo.com ; Tel.: +91-9791-736-009
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 04 November 2020
                : 24 November 2020

                prenatal stress,bacopa monnieri,caspase-3,synaptophysin,n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (nmdar),brain-derived neurotropic factor (bdnf)


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