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      Endothelial cell function and endothelial‐related disorders following haematopoietic cell transplantation

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          Summary

          Use of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the treatment of haematologic and neoplastic diseases may lead to life‐threatening complications that cause substantial morbidity and mortality if untreated. In addition to patient‐ and disease‐related factors, toxicity associated with HCT puts patients at risk for complications that share a similar pathophysiology involving endothelial cells (ECs). Normally, the endothelium plays a role in maintaining homeostasis, including regulation of coagulation, vascular tone, permeability and inflammatory processes. When activated, ECs acquire cellular features that may lead to phenotypic changes that induce procoagulant, pro‐inflammatory and pro‐apoptotic mediators leading to EC dysfunction and damage. Elevated levels of coagulation factors, cytokines and adhesion molecules are indicative of endothelial dysfunction, and endothelial damage may lead to clinical signs and symptoms of pathological post‐HCT conditions, including veno‐occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, graft‐versus‐host disease, transplant‐associated thrombotic microangiopathy and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome/diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The endothelium represents a rational target for preventing and treating HCT complications arising from EC dysfunction and damage. Additionally, markers of endothelial damage may be useful in improving diagnosis of HCT‐related complications and monitoring treatment effect. Continued research to effectively manage EC activation, injury and dysfunction may be important in improving patient outcomes after HCT.

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          Most cited references 89

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          Veno-occlusive disease of the liver and multiorgan failure after bone marrow transplantation: a cohort study of 355 patients.

          To determine the incidence and clinical course of veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD) after bone marrow transplantation and to analyze risk factors for severe VOD. Cohort study of 355 consecutive patients. A bone marrow transplantation center. Each patient was prospectively evaluated for VOD, and many risk factors for severe VOD were analyzed using logistic regression models. The relation of VOD to renal and cardiopulmonary failure was analyzed using time-dependent proportional hazards models. Veno-occlusive disease developed in 190 of 355 patients (54%; 95% CI, 48% to 59%): Fifty-four patients had severe VOD and 136 had mild or moderate VOD. Independent variables derived from a multivariate model for predicting severe VOD included elevated transaminase values before transplantation (relative risk, 4.6; P < 0.0001); vancomycin therapy during cytoreductive therapy (relative risk, 2.9; P = 0.003); cytoreductive therapy with a high-dose regimen (relative risk, 2.8; P = 0.01); acyclovir therapy before transplantation (relative risk, 4.8; P = 0.02); mismatched or unrelated donor marrow (relative risk, 2.4; P = 0.02); and previous radiation therapy to the abdomen (relative risk, 2.2; P = 0.04). Vancomycin therapy was a marker for persistent fever. Multiorgan failure was more frequent among patients with VOD and usually followed the onset of liver disease. Veno-occlusive disease, which developed in 54% of bone marrow transplant recipients, is frequently associated with renal and cardiopulmonary failure. Pretransplant transaminase elevations, use of high-dose cytoreductive therapy, and persistent fever during cytoreductive therapy are independent predictors of severe VOD.
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            Venoocclusive disease of the liver following bone marrow transplantation.

            Review of 235 consecutive patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation was performed in order to define the clinical syndrome of venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) in these patients. Analysis of all patients with histologically proven VOD revealed a consistent clinical syndrome of liver dysfunction occurring within the first 3 weeks after marrow infusion. This was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia peaking at greater than or equal to 2 mg/dl with at least 2 of 3 other findings: hepatomegaly, ascites, and 5% or greater weight gain. VOD developed in 22% (52 of 235). A persistently elevated aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) prior to transplant was associated with an increased risk of developing VOD by multivariate analysis (P = 0.0003), and acute leukemia in first remission was associated with a decreased risk (P = 0.02). Neither the preparative regimen (busulfan and cyclophosphamide versus cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation) nor the type of graft (allogeneic versus autologous) influenced the occurrence. Twenty-four of these 52 patients (47%) died with VOD (10% of the entire group). This makes VOD the third leading cause of death in our allogeneic graft recipients, and the second leading cause in our patients receiving autologous transplants. VOD is a common complication of bone marrow transplantation and has a specific clinical presentation, which usually allows diagnosis without the need of liver biopsy.
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              Physiology of the endothelium.

              In the past, the endothelium was considered to be inert, described as a 'layer of nucleated cellophane', with only non-reactive barrier properties, such as presentation of a non-thrombogenic surface for blood flow and guarding against pro-inflammatory insults. However, it is now becoming clear that endothelial cells actively and reactively participate in haemostasis and immune and inflammatory reactions. They regulate vascular tone via production of nitric oxide, endothelin and prostaglandins and are involved in the manifestations of atherogenesis, autoimmune diseases and infectious processes. They produce and react to various cytokines and adhesion molecules and it is now clear that they can mount anti- and pro-inflammatory and protective responses depending on environmental conditions and are key immunoreactive cells. Endothelial dysfunction or activation also contributes to a variety of disease states.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                gerhard.hildebrandt@uky.edu
                Journal
                Br J Haematol
                Br. J. Haematol
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2141
                BJH
                British Journal of Haematology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0007-1048
                1365-2141
                21 April 2020
                August 2020
                : 190
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1111/bjh.v190.4 )
                : 508-519
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Markey Cancer Center University of Kentucky Lexington KY USA
                [ 2 ] Duke Cancer Institute Duke University Medical Center Durham NC USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: Gerhard C. Hildebrandt, University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center, Ben F. Roach Cancer Care Facility, 800 Rose St, First Floor, Room CC140, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. Email: gerhard.hildebrandt@ 123456uky.edu

                Article
                BJH16621
                10.1111/bjh.16621
                7496350
                © 2020 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by British Society for Haematology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 12, Words: 9234
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Jazz Pharmaceuticals , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100011096;
                Categories
                Review
                Reviews
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                August 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.9.0 mode:remove_FC converted:11.09.2020

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