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      Recent Advancement of Understanding Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes and Potential Relevance to Diabetic Nephropathy


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          Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells by genetic and environmental factors which leads to an absolute dependence of insulin for survival and maintenance of health. Although the majority of mechanisms of beta cell destruction remain unclear, many molecules, including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, are implicated in the development of beta cell damage. Furthermore, beta cell destruction is enhanced by the Th1 and Th17 subsets of CD4+ T cells. In contrast, there are mechanisms involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by regulatory T cells, the function of which depends on the pleiotropic cytokine transforming growth factor beta. Development and progression of renal injuries in patients with diabetic nephropathy are also associated with several growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, insulin-like growth factor-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta. Although the pathogenic mechanisms underlying type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are principally different, i.e., autoimmunity and inflammation, some common factors, including susceptibility genes and proinflammatory cytokines, are involved in both mechanisms, including infiltrating cell recruitment, upregulation of other cytokines and chemokines, or apoptosis.

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          Most cited references89

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              A gene encoding a transmembrane protein is mutated in patients with diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy (Wolfram syndrome).

              Wolfram syndrome (WFS; OMIM 222300) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder defined by young-onset non-immune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. Linkage to markers on chromosome 4p was confirmed in five families. On the basis of meiotic recombinants and disease-associated haplotypes, the WFS gene was localized to a BAC/P1 contig of less than 250 kb. Mutations in a novel gene (WFS1) encoding a putative transmembrane protein were found in all affected individuals in six WFS families, and these mutations were associated with the disease phenotype. WFS1 appears to function in survival of islet beta-cells and neurons.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2007
                06 September 2007
                : 27
                : 6
                : 554-564
                aUnit of Translational Medicine, Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, and bDepartment of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki, Japan
                107758 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:554–564
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 18 May 2007
                : 16 July 2007
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 106, Pages: 11
                Kidney and beyond – Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Pathogenesis,Type 1 diabetes mellitus,Diabetic nephropathy,Cytokines,Genetics,Inflammation,Angiogenesis,Autoimmunity


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