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      Recent Advancement of Understanding Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes and Potential Relevance to Diabetic Nephropathy

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          Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells by genetic and environmental factors which leads to an absolute dependence of insulin for survival and maintenance of health. Although the majority of mechanisms of beta cell destruction remain unclear, many molecules, including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, are implicated in the development of beta cell damage. Furthermore, beta cell destruction is enhanced by the Th1 and Th17 subsets of CD4+ T cells. In contrast, there are mechanisms involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by regulatory T cells, the function of which depends on the pleiotropic cytokine transforming growth factor beta. Development and progression of renal injuries in patients with diabetic nephropathy are also associated with several growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, insulin-like growth factor-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta. Although the pathogenic mechanisms underlying type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are principally different, i.e., autoimmunity and inflammation, some common factors, including susceptibility genes and proinflammatory cytokines, are involved in both mechanisms, including infiltrating cell recruitment, upregulation of other cytokines and chemokines, or apoptosis.

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          Most cited references 89

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          Type I diabetes mellitus. A chronic autoimmune disease.

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            Molecular mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology of maturity-onset diabetes of the young.

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              Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha gene in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY1)

              The disease maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a genetically heterogeneous monogenic form of non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), characterized by early onset, usually before 25 years of age and often in adolescence or childhood, and by autosomal dominant inheritance. It has been estimated that 2-5% of patients with NIDDM may have this form of diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies have shown that prediabetic MODY subjects have normal insulin sensitivity but suffer from a defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting that pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance is the primary defect in this disorder. Linkage studies have localized the genes that are mutated in MODY on human chromosomes 20 (MODY1), 7 (MODY2) and 12 (MODY3), with MODY2 and MODY3 being allelic with the genes encoding glucokinase, a key regulator of insulin secretion, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha), a transcription factor involved in tissue-specific regulation of liver genes but also expressed in pancreatic islets, insulinoma cells and other tissues. Here we show that MODY1 is the gene encoding HNF-4alpha (gene symbol, TCF14), a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily and an upstream regulator of HNF-1alpha expression.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2007
                06 September 2007
                : 27
                : 6
                : 554-564
                aUnit of Translational Medicine, Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, and bDepartment of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki, Japan
                107758 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:554–564
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 106, Pages: 11
                Kidney and beyond – Review Article


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