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      Decreased activity of plasma ADAMTS13 are related to enhanced cytokinemia and endotoxemia in patients with acute liver failure

      , , , , , ,

      Biomedical Reports

      Spandidos Publications

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d7114372e168">Deficient ADAM metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity (ADAMTS13:AC) results in the accumulation of unusually large von Willebrand factor multimers (UL-VWFM) and causes microcirculatory disturbances and multiple organ failure, while endotoxins trigger the activation of a coagulation cascade. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ADAMTS13 in endotoxemia in patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Plasma concentrations of endotoxin and cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and activity of the plasma ADAMTS13 inhibitor were determined, along with ADAMTS13:AC, the VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and UL-VWFM, in 27 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 11 patients with ALF, and 10 healthy controls. IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations on admission were significantly higher in patients with ALF than in those with AH or in healthy controls. ADAMTS13:AC concomitantly decreased and VWF:Ag progressively increased with increasing cytokine concentrations from the normal range to &gt;100 pg/ml. The inhibitor was detected in 8 patients with ALF (0.6 to 2.4 BU/ml) and 6 patients with AH (0.6 to 0.8 BU/ml). Patients with the inhibitor reported lower ADAMTS13:AC, higher VWF:Ag and lower functional liver capacity than those without the inhibitor. Collectively, the findings suggested that decreased ADAMTS13:AC and increased VWF:Ag may be induced by pro-inflammatory cytokinemia as well as the presence of the ADAMTS13 inhibitor, both of which may be closely related to enhanced endotoxemia in patients with ALF. </p>

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          Most cited references 31

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          Is Open Access

          Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR' for medical statistics

           Y Kanda (2012)
          Although there are many commercially available statistical software packages, only a few implement a competing risk analysis or a proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates, which are necessary in studies on hematopoietic SCT. In addition, most packages are not clinician friendly, as they require that commands be written based on statistical languages. This report describes the statistical software ‘EZR' (Easy R), which is based on R and R commander. EZR enables the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates, receiver operating characteristics analyses, meta-analyses, sample size calculation and so on, by point-and-click access. EZR is freely available on our website (http://www.jichi.ac.jp/saitama-sct/SaitamaHP.files/statmed.html) and runs on both Windows (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and Mac OS X (Apple, USA). This report provides instructions for the installation and operation of EZR.
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            Structure of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13), a metalloprotease involved in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

            Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is associated with acquired or congenital deficiency of a plasma von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (VWFCP). Based on partial amino acid sequence, VWFCP was identified recently as a new member of the ADAMTS family of metalloproteases and designated ADAMTS13. The 4.6-kilobase pair cDNA sequence for VWFCP has now been determined. By Northern blotting, full-length VWFCP mRNA was detected only in liver. VWFCP consists of 1427 amino acid residues and has a signal peptide, a short propeptide terminating in the sequence RQRR, a reprolysin-like metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin-like domain, a thrombospondin-1 repeat, a Cys-rich domain, an ADAMTS spacer, seven additional thrombospondin-1 repeats, and two CUB domains. VWFCP apparently is made as a zymogen that requires proteolytic activation, possibly by furin intracellularly. Sites for Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions are conserved in the protease domain. The Cys-rich domain contains an RGDS sequence that could mediate integrin-dependent binding to platelets or other cells. Alternative splicing gives rise to at least seven potential variants that truncate the protein at different positions after the protease domain. Alternative splicing may have functional significance, producing proteins with distinct abilities to interact with cofactors, connective tissue, platelets, and von Willebrand factor.
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              Plasma endotoxin concentrations in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease: reevaluation with an improved chromogenic assay.

               H Fukui,  B Brauner,  J Bode (1991)
              Plasma endotoxin concentration was measured in 85 patients with alcoholic liver disease (alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 64), alcoholic hepatitis without cirrhosis (n = 11), fatty liver (n = 10), and in patients with non-alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 15]. Endotoxin concentration was determined with an improved chromogenic substrate assay, using individual standard curves for each plasma sample. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis the mean endotoxin concentration was significantly higher than in patients with non-alcoholic cirrhosis (p less than 0.05). In addition, distinctly higher endotoxin concentrations (greater than 20 pg/ml) were more frequently observed in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in non-alcoholic cirrhosis (34.4 vs. 14.3%, p less than 0.05). Mean endotoxin concentration was not significantly higher in cirrhotics with ascites or esophageal varices as compared with the subgroup without ascites or esophageal varices. The endotoxin concentration did not correlate with serum bilirubin, prothrombin concentration or serum enzyme activities. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, however, endotoxin concentration revealed a negative correlation (p less than 0.05) with the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. On admission endotoxin concentrations in alcoholics with fatty liver were similarly elevated as observed in alcoholic cirrhosis. In six out of 12 patients with fatty liver or alcoholic hepatitis, in whom a second sample of plasma was investigated after 6 to 8 days, endotoxemia was no longer detectable; in the remaining patients, the endotoxin concentration decreased markedly. The results indicate that, irrespective of the stage of liver disease, alcohol abuse favours the development of endotoxemia. They support the hypothesis that gut-derived endotoxins might play a role in the initiation and aggravation of alcohol-induced liver disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomedical Reports
                Spandidos Publications
                2049-9434
                2049-9442
                September 2017
                July 19 2017
                July 19 2017
                September 2017
                July 19 2017
                July 19 2017
                : 7
                : 3
                : 277-285
                Article
                10.3892/br.2017.945
                5582607
                28894574
                © 2017

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