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      Tres casos de enfermedad de Gaucher tipo I: Clínica, diagnóstico, genética molecular y tratamiento actual

      case-report

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          Abstract

          La enfermedad de Gaucher tipo I es una afección de herencia autosómica recesiva determinada por deficiencia de actividad de la enzima beta-glucosidasa ácida y acúmulo progresivo de glicosilceramida en los lisosomas de células macrofágicas. No tiene compromiso primario del sistema nervioso central, siendo sus síntomas habituales visceromegalias, sangrado, anemia y dolores óseos. Puede presentarse desde la edad pediátrica hasta el adulto mayor o permanecer asintomática. Han sido identificadas numerosas mutaciones, algunas muy frecuentes. Tiene tratamiento sintomático y específico. Presentamos tres casos de inicio en edad adulta, no emparentados entre sí y sin padres consanguíneos, analizando aspectos clínicos, bioquímicos, moleculares y de tratamiento actual. Destacamos la importancia del diagnóstico de esta enfermedad genética que tiene pautas de seguimiento y tratamiento específico.

          Translated abstract

          Résumé La maladie de Gaucher type I est une maladie à transmission autosomique récessive dûe à un déficit en une enzyme <FONT FACE=Symbol>b</FONT>-glucosidase et dépôt progressif de glucosylcéramide dans les lisosomes de cellules macrophagiques. Il n’y a pas d’engagement primaire du système nerveux central, les symptômes les plus courants étant les viscéromégalies, le saignement, l’anémie et les douleurs des os. Elle peut se présenter autant chez l’enfant que chez l’adulte majeur, ou rester asymptômatique. De nombreuses mutations ont été identifiées, quelques-unes très fréquentes. Elle a un traitement symptômatique et spécifique. On présente ici 3 cas chez des adultes n’ayant aucune relation familiale ni de parents consanguins. On analyse des aspects cliniques, biochimiques, moléculaires et de traitement. On signale l’importance du diagnostic de cette maladie génétique qui a des lignes de suivi et de traitement spécifiques.

          Translated abstract

          Summary Type 1 Gaucher disease is an inherited autosomal recesive disorder, determined by a deficiency of the acid ß-glucosidase enzyme and macrophage lysosomal storage of glucosylceramide. Common symptoms are visceromegaly, bleeding, anemia and bone pain; there is no central nervous system commitment. It could appear in childhood or adulthood and might be asymptomatic. Many mutations have been detected. It has symptomatic and specific treatment. The presentation includes three non-relative cases in which the disease appeared during adulthood; clinical, biochemical, molecular and treatment aspects are analyzed. The importance of diagnosis is highlighted.

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          The Gaucher registry: demographics and disease characteristics of 1698 patients with Gaucher disease.

          The Gaucher Registry, the largest database of patients with Gaucher disease (GD) worldwide, was initiated to better delineate the progressive nature of the disorder and determine optimal therapy. This report describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of 1698 patients with GD before they received enzyme replacement therapy. Physicians worldwide who treat patients with GD were invited to submit prospective and retrospective data for an ongoing registry, using standardized data collection forms, for central processing and review. Most patients were from the United States (45%) and Israel (17%), but patients are from 38 countries. Most (94%) had type 1 GD, fewer than 1% had type 2, and 5% had type 3. Mutant allele frequency data, available for 45% of patients, showed the most common alleles to be N370S (53%), L444P (18%), 84GG (7%), and IVS2+1 (2%). Twenty-five percent of L444P homozygotes (13 of 52 patients) had type 1 GD phenotype. Mean age at diagnosis in patients with the N370S/N370S genotype was 27.2 years (SD, 19.7 years); in L444P/L444P patients, 2. 3 years (SD, 3.2 years). Histories of bone pain and radiological bone disease were reported by 63% and 94% of patients, respectively; both were more likely in asplenic patients than in patients with spleens. Mean spleen and liver volumes were 19.8 and 2.0 multiples of normal, respectively. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were present in 64% and 56%, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was present in 13% of asplenic patients. The Gaucher Registry permits a comprehensive understanding of the clinical spectrum of GD because of the uniquely large sample size. The Registry will be useful in evaluating the effects of specific therapies in GD and the possible influences of environment, ethnicity, and genotype on the natural history of the disorder.
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            Effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy in 1028 patients with type 1 Gaucher disease after 2 to 5 years of treatment: a report from the Gaucher Registry.

            Gaucher disease is the first lysosomal storage disorder to be treated with macrophage-targeted enzyme replacement therapy. Previous studies in relatively small numbers of patients demonstrated short-term efficacy of this treatment. This study describes the effects of 2 to 5 years of treatment on specific manifestations of type 1 Gaucher disease. Physicians reported data from 1028 patients to the Gaucher Registry. Assessment of response included serial measurements of hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, liver and spleen volumes, and the occurrence of bone pain and bone crises. Among anemic patients, hemoglobin concentration increased to normal or near normal within 6 to 12 months, with a sustained response through 5 years. In thrombocytopenic patients with intact spleens, the most rapid response occurred during the first 2 years, with slower improvement thereafter. The likelihood of achieving a normal platelet count decreased with increasing severity of baseline thrombocytopenia. In patients who had undergone splenectomy, platelet counts returned to normal within 6 to 12 months. Hepatomegaly decreased by 30% to 40% during follow-up; splenomegaly decreased 50% to 60%, but rarely to volumes below five times normal size. In patients with pretreatment bone pain or bone crises, 52% (67/128) were pain free after 2 years and 94% (48/51) reported no additional crises. Enzyme replacement therapy prevents progressive manifestations of Gaucher disease, and ameliorates Gaucher disease-associated anemia, thrombocytopenia, organomegaly, bone pain, and bone crises.
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              Gaucher disease type 1: revised recommendations on evaluations and monitoring for adult patients.

              For patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, challenges to patient care posed by clinical heterogeneity, variable progression rates, and potential permanent disability that can result from untreated or suboptimally treated hematologic, skeletal, and visceral organ involvement dictate a need for comprehensive, serial monitoring. An updated consensus on minimum recommendations for effective monitoring of all adult patients with type 1 Gaucher disease has been developed by the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Registry coordinators. These recommendations provide a schedule for comprehensive and reproducible evaluation and monitoring of all clinically relevant aspects of this disease. The initial assessment should include confirmation of deficiency of beta-glucocerebrosidase, genotyping, and a complete family medical history. Other assessments to be performed initially and at regular intervals include a complete physical examination, patient-reported quality of life using the SF-36 survey, and assessment of hematologic (hemoglobin and platelet count), visceral, and skeletal involvement, and biomarkers. Specific radiologic imaging techniques are recommended for evaluating visceral and skeletal pathology. All patients should undergo comprehensive regular assessment, the frequency of which depends on treatment status and whether therapeutic goals have been achieved. Additionally, reassessment should be performed whenever enzyme therapy dose is altered, or in case of significant clinical complication.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rmu
                Revista Médica del Uruguay
                Rev. Méd. Urug.
                Sindicato Médico del Uruguay (Montevideo )
                1688-0390
                March 2006
                : 22
                : 1
                : 73-77
                Article
                S1688-03902006000100011
                4271d421-82cf-416e-ab52-dbb796e5b622

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Uruguay

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.edu.uy/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1688-0390&lng=en
                Categories
                MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY
                MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL
                MEDICINE, LEGAL
                MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL
                ONCOLOGY
                SURGERY

                Oncology & Radiotherapy,Social law,Medicine,Surgery,Clinical chemistry,Internal medicine
                ENFERMEDAD DE GAUCHER,ENZIMAS

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