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      Physiological aspects of the determination of comprehensive arterial inflows in the lower abdomen assessed by Doppler ultrasound

      review-article
      1 , 2 ,
      Cardiovascular Ultrasound
      BioMed Central
      Lower abdominal inflows, splanchnic blood flow, Doppler ultrasound

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          Abstract

          Non-invasive measurement of splanchnic hemodynamics has been utilized in the clinical setting for diagnosis of gastro-intestinal disease, and for determining reserve blood flow (BF) distribution. However, previous studies that measured BF in a "single vessel with small size volume", such as the superior mesenteric and coeliac arteries, were concerned solely with the target organ in the gastrointestinal area, and therefore evaluation of alterations in these single arterial BFs under various states was sometimes limited to "small blood volumes", even though there was a relatively large change in flow. BF in the lower abdomen (BF Ab) is potentially a useful indicator of the influence of comprehensive BF redistribution in cardiovascular and hepato-gastrointestinal disease, in the postprandial period, and in relation to physical exercise. BF Ab can be determined theoretically using Doppler ultrasound by subtracting BF in the bilateral proximal femoral arteries (FAs) from BF in the upper abdominal aorta (Ao) above the coeliac trunk. Prior to acceptance of this method of determining a true BF Ab value, it is necessary to obtain validated normal physiological data that represent the hemodynamic relationship between the three arteries. In determining BF Ab, relative reliability was acceptably high (range in intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.85-0.97) for three arterial hemodynamic parameters (blood velocity, vessel diameter, and BF) in three repeated measurements obtained over three different days. Bland-Altman analysis of the three repeated measurements revealed that day-to-day physiological variation (potentially including measurement error) was within the acceptable minimum range (95% of confidence interval), calculated as the difference in hemodynamics between two measurements. Mean BF (ml/min) was 2951 ± 767 in Ao, 316 ± 97 in left FA, 313 ± 83 in right FA, and 2323 ± 703 in BF Ab, which is in agreement with a previous study that measured the sum of BF in the major part of the coeliac, mesenteric, and renal arteries. This review presents the methodological concept that underlies BF Ab, and aspects of its day-to-day relative reliability in terms of the hemodynamics of the three target arteries, relationship with body surface area, respiratory effects, and potential clinical usefulness and application, in relation to data previously reported in original dedicated research.

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          Most cited references44

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          Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement.

          In clinical measurement comparison of a new measurement technique with an established one is often needed to see whether they agree sufficiently for the new to replace the old. Such investigations are often analysed inappropriately, notably by using correlation coefficients. The use of correlation is misleading. An alternative approach, based on graphical techniques and simple calculations, is described, together with the relation between this analysis and the assessment of repeatability.
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              Effects of exercise on mesenteric blood flow in man.

              M Qamar, A READ (1987)
              Transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound was used to assess the effects of exercise on both fasting and postprandial superior mesenteric artery blood flow. After treadmill exercise (speed 5 km/h, gradient 20%, duration 15 min) in 16 subjects, superior mesenteric artery blood flow decreased by 43% immediately after the end of the exercise and by 29% at five minutes and 24% at 10 minutes postexercise. The superior mesenteric artery blood flow response to a combination of a treadmill exercise and a liquid meal in 15 volunteers was significantly smaller at five minutes from the end of the stimuli, than the response to the meal alone (15 controls) (635 +/- 51 ml/min v 846 +/- 72 ml/min) (p less than 0.025), but not different at any other time. Thus exercise reduces mesenteric blood flow in both the fasting and postprandial state in normal subjects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cardiovasc Ultrasound
                Cardiovasc Ultrasound
                Cardiovascular Ultrasound
                BioMed Central
                1476-7120
                2012
                26 March 2012
                : 10
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Sports Medicine for Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
                [2 ]Cardiac Rehabilitation Centre, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                1476-7120-10-13
                10.1186/1476-7120-10-13
                3366871
                22443486
                427357d8-1c30-41ce-b360-5fcba8cab9b8
                Copyright ©2012 Osada; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 12 December 2011
                : 26 March 2012
                Categories
                Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                splanchnic blood flow,lower abdominal inflows,doppler ultrasound
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                splanchnic blood flow, lower abdominal inflows, doppler ultrasound

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