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      Editorial

      Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

      Elsevier

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          Abstract

          After a decade of being Editor-in-Chief of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, the time has come for me to step down. I would like to take this opportunity to tell you about the conception and development of DCN and to thank the many people involved in making this a hugely enjoyable endeavour and a successful journal. In 2008, Tom Merriweather, a Publisher from Elsevier, visited me in my office in London, UK, and we discussed the potential demand for a new journal in the area of developmental cognitive neuroscience. There were, at the time, multiple developmental psychology journals, and Development Science was a young journal publishing developmental neuroscience studies and was already well respected. The field – in particular, neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents – had rapidly expanded in recent years. A few weeks later, Tom came back with statistics on papers published in this area over the preceding decade. The line on the graph showed a steep upward incline and demonstrated clearly that there was room for a new journal in this area. Below is a figure showing the same graph up to the present day (Fig. 1). Fig. 1 Graph showing number of publications between 1996 and 2018 in the area of developmental cognitive neuroscience. Fig. 1 We were convinced by the data and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience was conceived. We were tremendously lucky and thankful that our dream editorial team accepted our invitations to become editors: Danny Pine, Ron Dahl and Uta Frith. Together, we nurtured and shaped the journal through its early years. Through frequent international phone conferences (spanning a 9 h time difference when Uta was in Aarhus, Denmark and Ron was in California, USA), we discussed many issues, including the remit of the journal. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a large field and our journal needed a unique scope that did not duplicate that of existing journals. We decided that DCN would publish papers with a neural component, focusing on development in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Then followed a year of designing the cover, selecting an advisory board, creating the website, refining the scope, and in 2010 DCN was born. During the early years, our infant journal grew and thrived. We published excellent and high quality special issues on a range of topics, including Motivation (https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/developmental-cognitive-neuroscience/vol/1/issue/4) edited by Ron Dahl and Louk Vanderschuren, Neuroscience & Education (https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/developmental-cognitive-neuroscience/vol/2/suppl/S1) edited by Silvia Bunge and myself, and Neural Plasticity, Behavior, and Cognitive Training: Developmental Neuroscience Perspectives (https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/developmental-cognitive-neuroscience/vol/4/suppl/C) edited by Yair Bar-Haim and Daniel Pine. Uta Frith was Reviews Editor and, during Uta’s tenure, DCN published many authoritative reviews (https://www.sciencedirect.com/search?pub=Developmental%20Cognitive%20Neuroscience&cid=280279&show=25&sortBy=relevance&articleTypes=REV&lastSelectedFacet=articleTypes), which are still highly cited. We were especially delighted when Mark Johnson (who, at the time, was Editor-in-Chief of Developmental Science) agreed to write a review of the field for DCN’s inaugural issue (this remains the most highly cited review published in DCN with around 250 citations to date: Johnson, 2011). This I think is indicative of an international field that has always been remarkably collaborative and collegiate. Other highly cited reviews were published in the following years (including Gervain et al., 2011; Spear, 2011; Gladwin et al., 2011; Decety and Svetlova, 2012; Eberl et al., 2013). Regular papers of a very high standard quickly started to be submitted to DCN and we were off to a strong start. Over the ensuing years, DCN has gone from strength to strength, thanks to many people’s dedication and commitment. The Publisher, Tom Merriweather, was replaced by Toby Charkin, who was recently replaced by Rachael Engels. I learned a great deal about the publishing process from them. Editors’ terms came to an end, and new editors joined: Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Torsten Baldeweg, Jennifer Pfeifer, Victoria Southgate and Bita Moghaddam. Many people have provided invaluable, behind-the-scenes support in the publication of papers, both in regular and special issues. I have enjoyed and learned a great deal from working with these people, who have all played a critical role in making DCN a success. There have also been challenges, including the ‘teething problems’ of the then new online submission system. Over the years, the journal has become well known and respected, with over 350 papers being submitted in 2018. In 2013 DCN became fully open access and papers are usually published online within a day or two of being accepted. The impact factor has gradually increased to 4.815 in 2018. Danny Pine has been an editor of DCN since the very start, and is also now stepping down. The journal would not have been such a success without Danny. I have lost count of the times I called Danny in his NIMH lab at 9.30am London time (which you will have worked out is the middle of the night in Bethesda) to ask him endless questions, from the more trivial (isn’t the girl on the front cover probably too young to wear earrings?) to the more substantive about when and how to reject papers, what happens if reviewers disagree, what are the pros and cons of going fully open access, and so on. Danny coached me in how to make (sometimes difficult) decisions about papers; his decision letters are well known for their in-depth and thoughtful reasoning behind the decision. I also greatly appreciate the committed work of Torsten Baldeweg, who has also stepped down this month. I’m very pleased that Katie McLaughlin and Eveline Crone have joined the editorial team, and so the journal will continue to be in excellent hands. The time has come for someone else to take the reins of Editor-in-Chief and to shape the journal with their vision. I could not be more pleased that this person is Bea Luna. Bea is world-renowned for her research on brain development in adolescence, and she is also well known for founding Flux, the society for developmental cognitive neuroscience. Flux and DCN have always been linked, and, with Bea as Editor-in-Chief of DCN and President of Flux, the relationship will grow stronger. There are exciting plans afoot for new directions for DCN, including making it a beacon of open science. It is poignant to step down from a project I have been involved with from the very start, but the journal couldn’t be in better hands with Bea and her editorial team, and I’m looking forward to watching the journal continue to grow and thrive throughout its second decade.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Approach bias modification in alcohol dependence: do clinical effects replicate and for whom does it work best?

          Alcoholism is a progressive neurocognitive developmental disorder. Recent evidence shows that computerized training interventions (Cognitive Bias Modification, CBM) can reverse some of these maladaptively changed neurocognitive processes. A first clinical study of a CBM, called alcohol-avoidance training, found that trained alcoholic patients showed less relapse at one-year follow-up than control patients. The present study tested the replication of this result, and questions about mediation and moderation. 509 alcohol-dependent patients received treatment as usual (primarily Cognitive Behavior Therapy) inpatient treatment. Before and after treatment, the implicit approach bias was measured with the Alcohol Approach-Avoidance Task. Half of the patients were randomly assigned to CBM, the other half received treatment as usual only. Background variables, psychopathology and executive control were tested as possible moderating variables of CBM. One year after treatment, follow-up data about relapse were collected. The group receiving CBM developed alcohol-avoidance behavior and reported significantly lower relapse rates at one-year follow-up. Change in alcohol-approach bias mediated this effect. Moderation analyses demonstrated that older patients and patients with a strong approach-bias at pretest profited most from CBM. CBM is a promising treatment add-on in alcohol addiction and may counter some of the maladaptive neurocognitive effects of long-term alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Putting together phylogenetic and ontogenetic perspectives on empathy.

            The ontogeny of human empathy is better understood with reference to the evolutionary history of the social brain. Empathy has deep evolutionary, biochemical, and neurological underpinnings. Even the most advanced forms of empathy in humans are built on more basic forms and remain connected to core mechanisms associated with affective communication, social attachment, and parental care. In this paper, we argue that it is essential to consider empathy within a neurodevelopmental framework that recognizes both the continuities and changes in socioemotional understanding from infancy to adulthood. We bring together neuroevolutionary and developmental perspectives on the information processing and neural mechanisms underlying empathy and caring, and show that they are grounded in multiple interacting systems and processes. Moreover, empathy in humans is assisted by other abstract and domain-general high-level cognitive abilities such as executive functions, mentalizing and language, as well as the ability to differentiate another's mental states from one's own, which expand the range of behaviors that can be driven by empathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Addiction, adolescence, and the integration of control and motivation.

              The likelihood of initiating addictive behaviors is higher during adolescence than during any other developmental period. The differential developmental trajectories of brain regions involved in motivation and control processes may lead to adolescents' increased risk taking in general, which may be exacerbated by the neural consequences of drug use. Neuroimaging studies suggest that increased risk-taking behavior in adolescence is related to an imbalance between prefrontal cortical regions, associated with executive functions, and subcortical brain regions related to affect and motivation. Dual-process models of addictive behaviors are similarly concerned with difficulties in controlling abnormally strong motivational processes. We acknowledge concerns raised about dual-process models, but argue that they can be addressed by carefully considering levels of description: motivational processes and top-down biasing can be understood as intertwined, co-developing components of more versus less reflective states of processing. We illustrate this with a model that further emphasizes temporal dynamics. Finally, behavioral interventions for addiction are discussed. Insights in the development of control and motivation may help to better understand - and more efficiently intervene in - vulnerabilities involving control and motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Dev Cogn Neurosci
                Dev Cogn Neurosci
                Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
                Elsevier
                1878-9293
                1878-9307
                17 January 2019
                April 2019
                17 January 2019
                : 36
                Affiliations
                UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Queen Square, London, UK
                Article
                S1878-9293(19)30031-3 100617
                10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100617
                6969215
                30685234
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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                Editorial

                Neurosciences

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