Continuous urban developments have resulted in increased demand for street furniture, one of which is street light columns. Artificial light at night (ALAN) pose significant impacts on insect diversity in urban and rural areas. The ALAN is a significant driver of decline in insect diversity. This study evaluated the impact of light intensity and sky quality at night on insect diversity in rural and urban areas of the Asir province, Saudi Arabia. Insect traps were installed in both areas during night. Light intensity of nearby road lamps was measured using light meter, while sky quality was measured using sky quality meter. Rural areas exhibited low light intensity (10.33 flux/f.candle) and good sky quality (18.80 magnitude/arcsec 2). Urban areas exhibited intense light (89.33 flux/f.candle) and poor sky quality (15.49 magnitude/arcsec 2). Higher insect diversity was recorded for rural areas where insects belonging to seven orders (i.e., Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, and Dermaptera) were collected. However, insects of four orders (i.e., Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, and Neuroptera) were found in urban areas indicating low diversity. Lepidopteran insects were frequently recorded from rural areas indicating they are attracted to artificial light. It is concluded that excessive ALAN and poor sky quality at night disrupt insect biodiversity. Therefore, ALAN and sky quality must be considered responsible for decline in insect biodiversity along with other known factors.