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      Monitoring of plant-environment interactions by high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy of pollen

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          Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate.

          Climate change is altering the availability of resources and the conditions that are crucial to plant performance. One way plants will respond to these changes is through environmentally induced shifts in phenotype (phenotypic plasticity). Understanding plastic responses is crucial for predicting and managing the effects of climate change on native species as well as crop plants. Here, we provide a toolbox with definitions of key theoretical elements and a synthesis of the current understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying plasticity relevant to climate change. By bringing ecological, evolutionary, physiological and molecular perspectives together, we hope to provide clear directives for future research and stimulate cross-disciplinary dialogue on the relevance of phenotypic plasticity under climate change. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change.

            Anthropogenic climate change has already altered the timing of major life-history transitions, such as the initiation of reproduction. Both phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution can underlie rapid phenological shifts in response to climate change, but their relative contributions are poorly understood. Here, we combine a continuous 38 year field survey with quantitative genetic field experiments to assess adaptation in the context of climate change. We focused on Boechera stricta (Brassicaeae), a mustard native to the US Rocky Mountains. Flowering phenology advanced significantly from 1973 to 2011, and was strongly associated with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt dates. Strong directional selection favoured earlier flowering in contemporary environments (2010-2011). Climate change could drive this directional selection, and promote even earlier flowering as temperatures continue to increase. Our quantitative genetic analyses predict a response to selection of 0.2 to 0.5 days acceleration in flowering per generation, which could account for more than 20 per cent of the phenological change observed in the long-term dataset. However, the strength of directional selection and the predicted evolutionary response are likely much greater now than even 30 years ago because of rapidly changing climatic conditions. We predict that adaptation will likely be necessary for long-term in situ persistence in the context of climate change.
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              DGAT1 and PDAT1 acyltransferases have overlapping functions in Arabidopsis triacylglycerol biosynthesis and are essential for normal pollen and seed development.

              Triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis is a principal metabolic pathway in most organisms, and TAG is the major form of carbon storage in many plant seeds. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is the only acyltransferase enzyme that has been confirmed to contribute to TAG biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. However, dgat1 null mutants display only a 20 to 40% decrease in seed oil content. To determine whether other enzymes contribute to TAG synthesis, candidate genes were expressed in TAG-deficient yeast, candidate mutants were crossed with the dgat1-1 mutant, and target genes were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi). An in vivo role for phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (PDAT1; At5g13640) in TAG synthesis was revealed in this study. After failing to obtain double homozygous plants from crossing dgat1-1 and pdat1-2, further investigation showed that the dgat1-1 pdat1-2 double mutation resulted in sterile pollen that lacked visible oil bodies. RNAi silencing of PDAT1 in a dgat1-1 background or DGAT1 in pdat1-1 background resulted in 70 to 80% decreases in oil content per seed and in disruptions of embryo development. These results establish in vivo involvement of PDAT1 in TAG biosynthesis, rule out major contributions by other candidate enzymes, and indicate that PDAT1 and DGAT1 have overlapping functions that are essential for normal pollen and seed development of Arabidopsis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Methods in Ecology and Evolution
                Methods Ecol Evol
                Wiley
                2041210X
                July 2017
                July 2017
                November 28 2016
                : 8
                : 7
                : 870-880
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology; Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology; Norwegian University of Life Sciences; 1432 Ås Norway
                [2 ]Nofima AS; 1430 Ås Norway
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry; Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; 12489 Berlin Germany
                [4 ]BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing; 12489 Berlin Germany
                Article
                10.1111/2041-210X.12697
                4283ad90-2ecb-4659-8559-8c29ce94da6f
                © 2016

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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