Background/Aims: Erythropoietin (EPO) possesses well-established hematopoietic properties as the primary stimulator of red blood cell formation by binding to its receptor (EPO-R). Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological roles of EPO in several non-hematopoietic tissues including kidney. Our aim was to further clarify the glomerular localization of EPO-R in normal kidney, as well as changes in its expression during glomerulogenesis. Methods:We analyzed EPO-R mRNA and protein expression in neonatal and adult mouse kidney by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. To confirm the precise localization and developmental changes of EPO-R expression in podocytes in mature and developing glomeruli, we examined co-expression with the podocyte markers WT-1 and synaptopodin. Results: In addition to tubular expression as reported recently, EPO-R expression was observed in podocytes as well as endocapillary cells in the glomeruli from adult mice. In newborn kidney, EPO-R mRNA and protein expression was first observed in developing podocytes in S-shaped bodies with expression subsequently increasing in glomeruli at the capillary-loop and maturing stages. Immunoelectron microscopy also demonstrated cytoplasmic expression of EPO-R that was prominent at the basal sides of podocytes in glomeruli at the late capillary-loop and maturing stage. Conclusion: EPO-R is expressed in developing and mature podocytes in mouse kidney, suggesting a possible role for EPO in podocyte biology.