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      A revision of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epeolus Latreille for Nearctic species, north of Mexico (Hymenoptera, Apidae)



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      cleptoparasitic bee, DNA barcoding, Epeolus, morphology, taxonomic revision

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          Herein, the cleptoparasitic (cuckoo) bee genus Epeolus ( Hymenoptera : Apidae ) is revised for species occurring in North America, north of Mexico, and an updated checklist of all species known to occur in Canada and the United States of America is provided with comprehensive descriptions, diagnoses, and a single dichotomous key (using the same couplets for both sexes) to aid in their identification. To increase their recognition among North American naturalists, English common names are also proposed for all North American Epeolus . A total of 43 species is confirmed as present in the region, 15 of which are newly recognized. The following new species are proposed based on unique morphological (and in most cases also molecular) attributes: E. andriyi sp. n., E. attenboroughi sp. n., E. axillaris sp. n., E. basili sp. n., E. brumleyi sp. n., E. chamaesarachae sp. n., E. deyrupi sp. n., E. diadematus sp. n., E. ferrarii sp. n., E. gibbsi sp. n., E. inornatus sp. n., E. nebulosus sp. n., E. packeri sp. n., E. splendidus sp. n., and E. tessieris sp. n. Of the 15, six ( E. axillaris , E. brumleyi , E. chamaesarachae , E. diadematus , E. splendidus , and E. tessieris ) were identified as new species under different names ( nomina nuda) in an M.Sc. thesis by Richard L. Brumley in 1965, but until now they have not been formally described. Detailed morphological comparisons with some evidence from DNA barcoding support the following synonymies, one of which C was first proposed by Brumley (1965): a) E. melectimimus Cockerell and Sandhouse, syn. n., under E. asperatus Cockerell; b) E. crucis Cockerell, syn. n., under E. compactus Cresson; c) E. mesillae palmarum Linsley, syn. n., under E. mesillae (Cockerell); and d) E. weemsi Mitchell, syn. n., and e) E. vernalis Mitchell, syn. n., under E. ilicis Mitchell. Only one member of the almost entirely Neotropical “Trophocleptria group” ( Epeolus bifasciatus Cresson) is confirmed as occurring north of Mexico, and is widespread East of the Rocky Mountains. Known floral associations are indicated for each species, as are suspected or known host species of Colletes Latreille. Evidence is presented that suggests further investigation into the possible synonymy of Colletes wickhami Timberlake under C. scopiventer Swenk is warranted.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Revision of the metallic Lasioglossum (Dialictus) of eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Halictini)

           JASON GIBBS (2011)
          Bees in the subgenus Lasioglossum (Dialictus) are commonly collected, behaviourally diverse and taxonomically challenging. The metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) occurring east of the Mississippi River are revised. Taxonomic treatments of all 97 species are provided with complete descriptions and illustrations given for the 40 species, which have not been recently described elsewhere. Identification keys for males and females are provided. The following eleven new species are described: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) arantium new species, L. (D.) ascheri new species, L. (D.) batya new species, L. (D.) curculum new species, L. (D.) furunculum new species, L. (D.) georgeickworti new species, L. (D.) gotham new species, L. (D.) izawsum new species, L. (D.) katherineae new species, L. (D.) rozeni new species, and L. (D.) trigeminum new species. Lasioglossum ascheri, L. curculum, L. furunculum, L. izawsum, and L. rozeni are believed to be social parasites or cleptoparasites of nest-building L. (Dialictus). Lasioglossum (D.) smilacinae (Robertson) is resurrected from synonymy with L. laevissimum (Smith). Lasioglossum (D.) nymphaearum (Robertson) is resurrected from synonymy with L. albipenne (Robertson).Lasioglossum rufulipes (Cockerell) and L. testaceum (Robertson) are removed from Evylaeus and placed in Dialictus. The following eleven new synonymies are proposed (junior subjective synonym listed second): L. (D.) flaveriae (Mitchell) = Dialictus tahitensis Mitchell; L. (D.) leucocomum (Lovell) = Dialictus otsegoensis Mitchell; L. (D.) lionotum (Sandhouse) = Paralictus asteris Mitchell; L. (D.) longifrons (Baker) = L. (Chloralictus) robertsonellum Michener; L. (D.) nigroviride (Graenicher) = Evylaeus pineolensis Mitchell; L. (D.) simplex (Robertson) = Halictus (Chloralictus) malinus Sandhouse; L. smilacinae (Robertson) = Halictus zophops Ellis, = D. philanthanus Mitchell; L. (D.) testaceum (Robertson) = Halictus (Chloralictus) scrophulariae Cockerell, = Lasioglossum (Chloralictus) sandhouseae Michener; and L. (D.) versans (Lovell) = Evylaeus divergenoides Mitchell. Lectotypes are designated for Halictus albipennis Robertson (1890), Halictus albitarsis Cresson (1872), Halictus cressonii Robertson (1890), Halictus disparilis Cresson (1872), Halictus hortensis Lovell (1905), Halictus nubilis Lovell (1905), Halictus pilosus leucocomus Lovell (1908), Halictus planatus Lovell (1905), Halictus stultus Cresson (1872), Halictus subconnexus rohweri Ellis (1915), Halictus tegularis Robertson (1890), Halictus versans Lovell (1905), and Halictus viridatus Lovell (1905).
            • Record: found
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            Revision of the metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini)

             JASON GIBBS (2010)
            The bee subgenus Dialictus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Lasioglossum) comprises the most commonly collected bees in North America and have the most diverse social systems of any equivalent group of insects. Despite their importance, as pollinators and as model organisms for studying the evolution of social behaviour, Dialictus remain one of the greatest challenges in bee taxonomy. A taxonomic revision of the metallic species of Canadian Dialictus has been completed which resolves many of the difficulties of these bees. Complete species descriptions with illustrations are provided for 84 metallic Dialictus in Canada along with keys to identify males and females. The following nineteen new species are described: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) abundipunctum new species, L. (D.) atwoodi new species, L. (D.) dashwoodi new species, L. (D.) ebmerellum new species, L. (D.) ephialtum new species, L. (D.) imbrex new species, L. (D.) knereri new species, L. (D.) lilliputense new species, L. (D.) macroprosopum new species, L. (D.) packeri new species, L. (D.) prasinogaster new species, L. (D.) reasbeckae new species, L. (D.) sablense new species, L. (D.) sandhousiellum new species, L. (D.) sheffieldi new species, L. (D.) sitocleptum new species, L. (D.) taylorae new species, L. (D.) timothyi new species, and L. (D.) yukonae Gibbs, new species. Lasioglossum (D.) mitchelli is proposed as a replacement name for L. atlanticum (Mitchell) due to secondary homonymy with Halictus interruptus atlanticus Cockerell, a junior subjective synonym of L. interruptum (Panzer).The following forty-three new synonymies are proposed: L. (D.) admirandum (Sandhouse) (= D. perspicuus Knerer and Atwood); L. (D.) albipenne (Robertson) (= Halictus palustris Robertson, = H. (Chloralictus) lactineus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) basilicus Sandhouse); L. (D.) albohirtum (Crawford) (= H. pilosellus Cockerell); L. (D.) brunneiventre (Crawford) (= H. pilosicaudus Cockerell); L. cattellae (Ellis) (=D. alternatus Mitchell); L. connexum (Cresson) (= H. (C.) politissi-mus Cockerell); L. (D.) cressonii (Robertson) (= D. delectatus Mitchell); L. floridanum (Robertson) (= D. intrepidus Mitchell); L. (D.) foveolatum (Robertson) (= D. supraclypeatus Mitchell); L. (D.) imitatum (Smith) (= H. (C.) insolitus Sandhouse, = D. lectus Mitchell); L. (D.) incompletum (Crawford) (= D. ornduffi Hurd); L. (D.) laevissimum (Smith) (= H. (C.) astutus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) abundus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) jamesae Cockerell, = H. (C.) phaceliarum Cockerell, = H. (C.) praepes Sandhouse, = D. solidaginis Mitchell, = H. (C.) tranquillus Sandhouse); L. (D.) lineatulum (Crawford) (= H. (C.) latus Sandhouse); L. (D.) nigroviride (Graenicher) (= H. (C.) richardsoni Cockerell); L. (D.) obscurum (Robertson) (= D. orbitatus Mitchell); L. (D.) occidentale (Crawford) (= D. theodori Crawford); L. (D). oceanicum (Cockerell) (= D. advertus Mitchell); L. (D.) pavoninum (Ellis) (= H. (C.) evestigatus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) pikei Sandhouse, = H. (C.) abietum Michener); L. (D.) perpunctatum (Ellis) (= D. highlandicus Mitchell, = D. junaluskensis Mitchell); L. (D.) sagax (Sandhouse) (= Halictus (C.) accentus Sandhouse); L. (D.) semibrunneum (Cockerell) (= Halictus oleosus Cockerell); L. (D.) semicaeruleum (Cockerell) (= H. pruinosiformis Crawford, = H. (C.) actuarius Sandhouse); L. (D.) subversans (Mitchell) (= D. perpunctatulus Knerer and Atwood); L. (D.) tenax (Sandhouse) (= H. (C.) meritus Sandhouse, = D. disabanci Knerer and Atwood); L. (D.) versans (Lovell) (= H. (C.) brevibasis Cockerell); L. (D.) versatum (Robertson) (= H. (C.) apertus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) genuinus Sandhouse, = H. subconnexus rohweri Ellis); L. (D.) zephyrum (Smith) (= H. (C.) academicus Sandhouse). Halictus (C.) unicus Sandhouse is again treated as a junior synonym of L. lineatulum. Eleven subgeneric names recently proposed by Pesenko are treated as synonymies of Dialictus. Some species names are used here in a sense different from those of most previous authors (e.g. H. nymphaearus, H. versatus). Names have often been misapplied in past usage sometimes subsuming multiple species. In some cases, even paratypes do not correspond to the same species as the name bearing type. The following three species are resurrected from synonymy: L. (D.) leucocomum (Lovell) new combinaton, L. (D.) oceanicum (Cockerell) new combination, and L. (D.) planatum. The species L. (D.) atriventre (Crawford) is considered a nomen dubium. The following twelve new records for Canada are reported: L. (D.) achilleae (Mitchell), L. (D.) brunneiventre (Crawford), L. (D.) callidum (Sandhouse), L. (D.) incompletum (Crawford), L. (D.) hudsoniellum (Cockerell), L. (D.) marinense (Michener), L. (D.) pacatum (Sandhouse), L. (D.) pallidellum (Ellis), L. (D.) punctatoventre (Crawford), L. (D). sagax (Sandhouse), L. (D.) weemsi (Mitchell) and L. (D.) zophops (Ellis). The Canadian records of two species, L. (D.) disparile (Cresson) and L. (D.) ceanothi (Mitchell), do not seem reliable and these species are not included in the revision. Two species, L. testaceum (Robertson) and L. rufulipes (Cockerell), are transferred from the L. (Dialictus) to L. (Evylaeus) sensu stricto.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
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              The principal Larrea bees of the southwestern United States (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

               E. Linsley,  Paul Hurd (1975)

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                8 May 2018
                : 755
                : 1-185
                [1 ] Department of Biology, York University 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON M3J 1P3
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Thomas M. Onuferko ( thomas.onuferko@ )

                Academic editor: M. Ohl

                Thomas M. Onuferko

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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