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      Clinical Utility of Amlodipine/Valsartan Fixed-Dose Combination in the Management of Hypertension in Chinese Patients

      , MD 1 , , MD 1 , , MD , 1

      Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications

      Compuscript

      hypertension, valsartan, amlodipine, single-pill combination

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          Abstract

          Amlodipine/valsartan (Aml/Val) single-pill combination (SPC) therapy has been widely used and studied in clinical practice in recent years. This article reviews the Chinese and English literature on the clinical use of Aml/Val SPC therapy in Chinese hypertensive patients. According to five studies concerning the efficacy and safety of this treatment, Aml/Val SPC therapy was more efficacious than monotherapy with valsartan, amlodipine, or the nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. This treatment showed greater blood pressure-lowering effects, a higher blood pressure control rate, and a higher response rate. Aml/Val SPC treatment was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to those of monotherapy with valsartan or amlodipine and significantly rarer adverse events compared with the nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. Aml/Val SPC is a highly efficacious and well-tolerated antihypertensive treatment in Chinese hypertensive patients.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Factors Associated with Adherence to Anti-Hypertensive Treatment in Pakistan

          Objectives Poor adherence is one of the biggest obstacles in therapeutic control of high blood pressure. The objectives of this study were (i) to measure adherence to antihypertensive therapy in a representative sample of the hypertensive Pakistani population and (ii) to investigate the factors associated with adherence in the studied population. Methods and Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on a simple random sample of 460 patients at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) and National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from September 2005–May 2006. Adherence was assessed using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS), with scores ranging from 0 (non-adherent) to 4 (adherent). In addition to MMAS, patient self-reports about the number of pills taken over a prescribed period were used to estimate adherence as a percentage. AKU Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKU-ADS) was incorporated to find any association between depression and adherence. At a cut-off value of 80%, 77% of the cases were adherent. Upon univariate analyses, increasing age, better awareness and increasing number of pills prescribed significantly improved adherence, while depression showed no association. Significant associations, upon multivariate analyses, included number of drugs that a patient was taking (P<0.02) and whether he/she was taking medication regularly or only for symptomatic relief (P<0.00001). Conclusions Similar to what has been reported worldwide, younger age, poor awareness, and symptomatic treatment adversely affected adherence to antihypertensive medication in our population. In contrast, monotherapy reduced adherence, whereas psychosocial factors such as depression showed no association. These findings may be used to identify the subset of population at risk of low adherence who should be targeted for interventions to achieve better blood pressure control and hence prevent complications.
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            Efficacy and safety of initial combination therapy with amlodipine/valsartan compared with amlodipine monotherapy in black patients with stage 2 hypertension: the EX-STAND study.

             P Brunel,  J Flack,  R Hilkert (2009)
            The strategy of initiating hypertension treatment with combination versus single-drug therapy was formally tested in a prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial in blacks with stage 2 hypertension (mean sitting systolic BP (MSSBP) >or=160 and or=130 mm Hg at week 4, the protocol allowed optional titration of A/V to the 10/320 mg dose and, at week 8, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg was optionally added to both A/V and A if SBP >or=130 mm Hg. Amlodipine/valsartan at week 8 lowered MSSBP last observation carried forward significantly>A (33.3 vs 26.6 mm Hg, P or=65 years), isolated systolic hypertension, and those with body mass index (BMI) >or=30 kg/m(2). More patients treated with A/V than A achieved BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) both at weeks 8 (49.8 vs 30.2%; P<0.0001) and 12 (57.2 vs 35.9%; P<0.0001). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated. In conclusion, the strategy of initiating combination antihypertensive drug therapy in blacks with stage 2 hypertension with amlodipine /valsartan achieves greater and quicker reductions in BP as well as significantly higher BP control rates than starting treatment with amlodipine monotherapy.
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              Efficacy of the combination of amlodipine and valsartan in patients with hypertension uncontrolled with previous monotherapy: the Exforge in Failure after Single Therapy (EX-FAST) study.

              In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter study, patients whose blood pressure (BP) was uncontrolled by monotherapy were switched directly to amlodipine/valsartan 5/160 mg (n=443) or 10/160 mg (n=451). After 16 weeks, BP control (levels <140/90 mm Hg or <130/80 mm Hg for diabetics) was achieved in 72.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.6-76.9) of patients receiving amlodipine/valsartan 5/160 mg and in 74.8% (95% CI, 70.8-78.9) receiving amlodipine/valsartan 10/160 mg. Incremental reductions from baseline in mean sitting systolic and diastolic BP were significantly greater with the higher dose (20.0+/-0.7 vs 17.5+/-0.7 mm Hg; P=.0003 and 11.6+/-0.4 vs 10.4+/-0.4 mm Hg; P=.0046). Incremental BP reductions were also achieved with both regimens irrespective of previous monotherapy, hypertension severity, diabetic status, body mass index, and age. Peripheral edema was the most frequent adverse event. These results provide support for the BP-lowering benefits of complementary antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine and valsartan in patients with hypertension uncontrolled by previous monotherapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CVIA
                Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications
                CVIA
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                2009-8782
                2009-8618
                February 2017
                June 2017
                : 2
                : 2
                : 265-271
                Affiliations
                1Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Hong Jiang, MD, Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuchang, Wuhan 430060, People’s Republic of China, Tel: +86 27 88041911, Fax: +86 27 88040334, E-mail: hong-jiang@ 123456whu.edu.cn
                Article
                cvia20170012
                10.15212/CVIA.2017.0012
                Copyright © 2017 Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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