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      Convective and diffusive losses of vitamin C during haemodiafiltration session: a contributive factor to oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients.

      Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

      blood, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Arteriosclerosis, etiology, Ascorbic Acid, Biological Markers, Blood Proteins, chemistry, metabolism, Case-Control Studies, Convection, Diffusion, Female, Glutathione Peroxidase, Hemodiafiltration, adverse effects, Humans, Male, Malondialdehyde, Middle Aged, Oxidative Stress, Renal Dialysis, Risk Factors, Vitamin E

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          Abstract

          Enhanced oxidative stress in haemodialysis (HD) patients may be considered as a risk factor for accelerated atherosclerosis. Reduced antioxidant defences include impairment in enzyme activities and decreased plasma levels of hydrophilic vitamin C (vit C), and cellular levels of lipophilic vitamin E (vit E). We investigated plasma levels of vit C in 19 patients undergoing regular haemodiafiltration (HDF) (mean age 62+/-7 years) and in 1846 healthy elderly subjects (HS) (mean age 69+/-5 years). The contribution of convection and diffusion was determined using paired filtration dialysis (PFD), a modified HDF technique which physically separates convective from diffusive fluxes. Blood samples were collected before and after the HDF session; in addition at 60 min of HDF, samples were drawn from arterial lines (AL) and venous lines (VL), dialysate (D) and ultrafiltrate (UF). Blood levels of total vit C were determined using an HPLC fluorescence method. Markers of oxidative stress were also assessed in both populations as follows: levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by fluorometric assay, measurements of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were performed by spectrophotometric assay, and plasma vit E content was obtained by an HPLC procedure. A significant reduction in plasma vit C level was observed in HDF patients when compared with HS (1.6+/-1.4 microg/ml in HDF vs 6.6+/-3.7 microg/ml in HS; P<0.01). The HDF session was associated with a dramatic reduction in vit C levels (1.87+/-1.57 microg/ml before HDF and 0.98+/-0.68 microg/ml after HDF); at 60 min of HDF, concentrations were as follows: AL=1.35+/-1.27 microg/ml; VL=0.37+/-0.31 microg/ml, D=0.40+/-0.34 microg/ml, UF=1.24+/-1.18 microg/ml; corresponding to a diffusive flux of 271 microg/min and a convective flux of 126 microg/min. Total loss of vit C could be assessed at 66 mg/session (8--230 mg/session). According to this loss of vit C, presence of an oxidative stress was demonstrated in HD population as shown by a significant increase in MDA (1.66+/-0.27 microM in HD vs 0.89+/-0.25 microM in HS; P<0.01) and AOPP (77.5+/-29.3 microM in HD vs 23.5+/-13.2 microM in HS; P<0.01) levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity (259.2+/-106.3 U/l in HD vs 661.2+/-92.2 U/l in HS; P<0.01). No change in plasma vit E between both populations (30.7+/-9.1 microM in HD vs 35.3+/-7.34 microM in HS) was observed. These results suggest that HDF with highly permeable membranes is associated with a significant loss of vit C. Diffusive transport is responsible for two-thirds whereas convective phenomenon accounts for only one-third of this loss.

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          Enhanced LDL oxidation in uremic patients: an additional mechanism for accelerated atherosclerosis?

          Since oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is more atherogenic than native LDL, LDL oxidation was investigated in uremic patients who often develop accelerated atherogenesis. Three groups of uremic patients were studied (10 on predialysis conservative therapy, 11 on repetitive hemodialysis, 13 on peritoneal dialysis) and compared with seventy matched controls. LDL oxidation was evaluated in all patients as: (i) the susceptibility to in vitro oxidation (by measuring the resistance to Cu(++)-induced formation of conjugated dienes), (ii) vitamin E concentration in LDL, and (iii) presence of plasma anti-oxidized LDL antibodies, expressed as the ratio anti-oxLDL/anti-nativeLDL antibodies. The lipid profile was studied in all patients. Vitamin E concentration did not differ between the various groups, although LDL from uremic patients appeared more susceptible to in vitro and in vivo oxidation (as demonstrated by an earlier generation of conjugated dienes and by the presence of an higher antibody ratio) compared to control subjects. Subclass analysis of the different patients revealed that peritoneal dialysis treatment ameliorated the oxidation markers. However, a prolonged dialytic treatment caused a decrease in vitamin E concentration in LDL and increased their susceptibility to oxidation.
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            Water soluble vitamins in chronic hemodialysis patients and need for supplementation.

            Forty-three patients on chronic hemodialysis who before the present study had only received a low-dose supplement of folic and ascorbic acid were studied prospectively for one year. After baseline values were obtained in month one, increasing doses of postdialysis vitamin supplements were prescribed for the vitamins which were found to be insufficient in order to determine the minimal amount of oral postdialysis supplement necessary to normalize vitamin levels. According to our results no systematic supplement was indicated for biotin, riboflavin or vitamin B12. For folic acid and vitamin C, supplementation with lower doses than those prescribed in many dialysis units allowed optimal vitamin levels in the majority of patients; 2 to 3 mg/week (300 to 400 micrograms/day) of folic acid and of 1000 to 1500 mg/week (150 to 200 mg/day) of vitamin C was considered sufficient. A severe pyridoxine deficiency was present in most (> 80%) unsupplemented patients, either as judged by pyridoxal-5-phosphate determinations in plasma or determination of specific enzyme activation in erythrocytes (EGOTo and alpha-EGOT); a postdialysis supplement of at least 100 to 150 mg/week of pyridoxine hydrochloride (> 15 to 20 mg/day) corrects this deficiency. The activity of the thiamine-dependent enzyme transketolase in erythrocytes (ETKo) was insufficient in 35% and marginal in 21% of the patients, while whole blood thiamine determined simultaneously in 10 of the ETKo-deficient patients was within the normal range. These results suggest that in uremia insufficient transketolase activity may be related to inhibition of the enzymatic system rather than to true vitamin deficiency. On a long-term basis a supplement of 200 to 300 mg/week of thiamine hydrochloride (30 to 45 mg/day) restored ETKo to satisfactory levels in most patients; whether this supplement is to be recommended warrants further studies.
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              Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Modification: Basic Concepts and Relationship to Atherosclerosis

              A large number of clinical studies support the hypothesis that the risk for atherosclerosis is associated with the proportion of different LDL subfractions in blood. Electronegatively modified forms of LDL (LDL – ) isolated using different chromatographic techniques are characterised by significant differences in the protein and lipid content as compared to the native LDL subfraction. LDL – composition appears to influence its atherogenic properties as well as its high susceptibility to oxidation and impaired metabolism. Increased LDL – levels are found in subjects with coronary artery disease, particularly in diabetics and patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Whether elevated LDL – levels are due to the LDL oxidation in blood remains disputed despite the oxidative character of LDL – modification. Plausible means for LDL – formation in blood include glycation and protein-radical interactions with ApoB 100. The latter can prevail during HD as observed in in vitro studies using a model HD system. The rapid and progressive formation of LDL – during standard HD can be significantly reduced employing haemolipodialysis (HLD), which provides local delivery of specific antioxidants (vitamin E and C) to blood at concentrations above normal physiologic levels. This procedure appears to be more effective than oral supplementation with antioxidants and may be a promising approach to reducing the rapid progression of atherosclerosis in HD patients.
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                11865087

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