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      Recombinant human antibody fragment against tetanus toxoid produced by phage display

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          Abstract

          Phage display technology is a powerful in vitro method for the identification of specific monoclonal antibodies (antibody fragments) to an antigenic target and allows the rapid generation and selection of high affinity, fully human antibodies directed toward any disease target appropriate for antibody therapy. In the present study, we exploited the phage display technology for the selection of an antigen binding fragment (Fabs) toward tetanus toxoid using human naïve phage antibody library constructed from peripheral blood lymphocytes of naïve human donors. The phages displaying Fab were subjected to three rounds of bio-panning with tetanus toxoid as antigen on a solid phase. The high affinity antibody fragments were expressed in HB2151 strain of Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The binding activity and specificity of the antibody fragment was established by its reactivity toward tetanus toxoid and non-reactivity toward other related toxins as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis. The selected Fab fragment forming the antigen-binding complexes with the toxoid in flocculation assay indicates that the Fab may have a potential neutralizing ability toward antigen.

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          Most cited references31

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          By-passing immunization. Human antibodies from V-gene libraries displayed on phage.

          We have mimicked features of immune selection to make human antibodies in bacteria. Diverse libraries of immunoglobulin heavy (VH) and light (V kappa and V lambda) chain variable (V) genes were prepared from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of unimmunized donors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Genes encoding single chain Fv fragments were made by randomly combining heavy and light chain V-genes using PCR, and the combinatorial library (greater than 10(7) members) cloned for display on the surface of a phage. Rare phage with "antigen-binding" activities were selected by four rounds of growth and panning with "antigen" (turkey egg-white lysozyme (TEL) or bovine serum albumin) or "hapten" (2-phenyloxazol-5-one (phOx], and the encoding heavy and light chain genes were sequenced. The V-genes were human with some nearly identical to known germ-line V-genes, while others were more heavily mutated. Soluble antibody fragments were prepared and shown to bind specifically to antigen or hapten and with good affinities, Ka (TEL) = 10(7) M-1; Ka (phOx) = 2 x 10(6) M-1. Isolation of higher-affinity fragments may require the use of larger primary libraries or the construction of secondary libraries from the binders. Nevertheless, our results suggest that a single large phage display library can be used to isolate human antibodies against any antigen, by-passing both hybridoma technology and immunization.
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            A compact phage display human scFv library for selection of antibodies to a wide variety of antigens

            Background Phage display technology is a powerful new tool for making antibodies outside the immune system, thus avoiding the use of experimental animals. In the early days, it was postulated that this technique would eventually replace hybridoma technology and animal immunisations. However, since this technology emerged more than 20 years ago, there have only been a handful reports on the construction and application of phage display antibody libraries world-wide. Results Here we report the simplest and highly efficient method for the construction of a highly useful human single chain variable fragment (scFv) library. The least number of oligonucleotide primers, electroporations and ligation reactions were used to generate a library of 1.5 × 108 individual clones, without generation of sub-libraries. All possible combinations of heavy and light chains, among all immunoglobulin isotypes, were included by using a mixture of primers and overlapping extension PCR. The key difference from other similar libraries was the highest diversity of variable gene repertoires, which was derived from 140 non-immunized human donors. A wide variety of antigens were successfully used to affinity select specific binders. These included pure recombinant proteins, a hapten and complex antigens such as viral coat proteins, crude snake venom and cancer cell surface antigens. In particular, we were able to use standard bio-panning method to isolate antibody that can bind to soluble Aflatoxin B1, when using BSA-conjugated toxin as a target, as demonstrated by inhibition ELISA. Conclusion These results suggested that by using an optimized protocol and very high repertoire diversity, a compact and efficient phage antibody library can be generated. This advanced method could be adopted by any molecular biology laboratory to generate both naïve or immunized libraries for particular targets as well as for high-throughput applications.
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              Human anti-self antibodies with high specificity from phage display libraries.

              Recently we demonstrated that human antibody fragments with binding activities against foreign antigens can be isolated from repertoires of rearranged V-genes derived from the mRNA of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from unimmunized humans. The heavy and light chain V-genes were shuffled at random and cloned for display as single-chain Fv (scFv) fragments on the surface of filamentous phage, and the fragments selected by binding of the phage to antigen. Here we show that from the same phage library we can make scFv fragments encoded by both unmutated and mutated V-genes, with high specificities of binding to human self-antigens. Several of the affinity purified scFv fragments were shown to be a mixture of monomers and dimers in solution by FPLC gel filtration and the binding kinetics of the dimers were determined using surface plasmon resonance (k(on) = 10(5)-10(6) M-1s-1, k(off) = 10(-2)s-1 and Ka = 10(7) M-1). The kinetics of association are typical of known Ab-protein interactions, but the kinetics of dissociation are relatively fast. For therapeutic application, the binding affinities of such antibodies could be improved in vitro by mutation and selection for slower dissociation kinetics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 March 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 45-55
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Research and Development Center, Indian Immunologicals Limited, Hyderabad, Gachibowli, 500032, India
                [ 2 ] Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, 522510, India
                [ 3 ] Indian Immunologicals Limited, Rakshapuram, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, 500032, India
                Author notes
                [* ] +91-40-23000412, +91-40-23005958, rlingala2005@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                4
                10.1556/eujmi.4.2014.1.4
                42a38bac-0513-470d-94ea-bbc93c647634
                Categories
                Original Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                phage,Fabs,ELISA,TT,flocculation

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