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      An exploration of the influence of family on cigarette smoking among American Indian adolescents.

      Health Education Research

      Adolescent, Ceremonial Behavior, Child, Family, ethnology, Female, Focus Groups, Humans, Indians, North American, statistics & numerical data, Oklahoma, epidemiology, prevention & control, Smoking

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          American Indians have the highest smoking rate of all major racial/ethnic groups in the US, despite significant variation across tribes and regions of the country. Yet, little research has been conducted on smoking initiation among American Indian adolescents. In an effort to identify the mechanisms through which families influence teen smoking, both positively and negatively, 20 focus groups were conducted with 144 non-reservation American Indian teens in Oklahoma. Findings indicated that most of the antismoking messages from family members were given by parents and grandparents, and focused on the long-term health consequences of smoking and addiction. Parental responses to teen smoking varied widely, with some responses sending mixed messages to the teens. Many teens discussed obtaining their first cigarette in a family setting and the teens felt that having smokers in their families influenced them to try smoking. Teens were able to discuss the traditional role of tobacco in their culture and were aware of its presence at Indian events, but felt ceremonial and traditional use was distinct from recreational use. Additional research is necessary to assess whether these results are generalizable to other tribes and regions, and to other racial/ethnic groups.

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