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      Effects of Ibuprofen Intake in Muscle Damage, Body Temperature and Muscle Power in Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes

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          The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ingesting ibuprofen on post-workout recovery of muscle damage, body temperature and muscle power indicators in Paralympic powerlifting athletes. The study was carried out with eight Paralympic powerlifting athletes (aged 27.0 ± 5.3 years and 79.9 ± 25.5 kg of body mass) competing at the national level, with a minimum training experience of 12 months, who all submitted to two experimental conditions: Ibuprofen (2 × 00 mg) and control. The maximal isometric force of the upper limbs and rate of force development, thermography, and serum biochemical analyzes of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were measured before, after, 24 h after and 48 h after the intervention. Maximal isometric force only decreased in the placebo condition, which increased back to baseline levels, while no substantial decline in baseline force was seen in the ibuprofen condition, although no effect for exercise condition was detected. After the exercise, the rate of force development decreased significantly for both conditions and did not exceed baseline levels again after 48 h. Muscle temperature decreased significantly at 48-h post-exercise in the placebo condition, when compared with the previous day of measurement; and deltoid muscle temperature at 48-h post-exercise was higher with the ibuprofen condition. Although the results indicate some positive effects of ibuprofen use, they do not enable a clear statement regarding its positive effects on muscle function and muscle damage. Ibuprofen seems to have caused a delay in the anti-inflammatory response following exercise.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training.

          The maximal rate of rise in muscle force [rate of force development (RFD)] has important functional consequences as it determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction (0-200 ms). The present study examined the effect of resistance training on contractile RFD and efferent motor outflow ("neural drive") during maximal muscle contraction. Contractile RFD (slope of force-time curve), impulse (time-integrated force), electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude (mean average voltage), and rate of EMG rise (slope of EMG-time curve) were determined (1-kHz sampling rate) during maximal isometric muscle contraction (quadriceps femoris) in 15 male subjects before and after 14 wk of heavy-resistance strength training (38 sessions). Maximal isometric muscle strength [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] increased from 291.1 +/- 9.8 to 339.0 +/- 10.2 N. m after training. Contractile RFD determined within time intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 ms relative to onset of contraction increased from 1,601 +/- 117 to 2,020 +/- 119 (P < 0.05), 1,802 +/- 121 to 2,201 +/- 106 (P < 0.01), 1,543 +/- 83 to 1,806 +/- 69 (P < 0.01), and 1,141 +/- 45 to 1,363 +/- 44 N. m. s(-1) (P < 0.01), respectively. Corresponding increases were observed in contractile impulse (P < 0.01-0.05). When normalized relative to MVC, contractile RFD increased 15% after training (at zero to one-sixth MVC; P < 0.05). Furthermore, muscle EMG increased (P < 0.01-0.05) 22-143% (mean average voltage) and 41-106% (rate of EMG rise) in the early contraction phase (0-200 ms). In conclusion, increases in explosive muscle strength (contractile RFD and impulse) were observed after heavy-resistance strength training. These findings could be explained by an enhanced neural drive, as evidenced by marked increases in EMG signal amplitude and rate of EMG rise in the early phase of muscle contraction.
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            Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Humans

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              This review describes the features of modern infrared imaging technology and the standardization protocols for thermal imaging in medicine. The technique essentially uses naturally emitted infrared radiation from the skin surface. Recent studies have investigated the influence of equipment and the methods of image recording. The credibility and acceptance of thermal imaging in medicine is subject to critical use of the technology and proper understanding of thermal physiology. Finally, we review established and evolving medical applications for thermal imaging, including inflammatory diseases, complex regional pain syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon. Recent interest in the potential applications for fever screening is described, and some other areas of medicine where some research papers have included thermal imaging as an assessment modality. In certain applications thermal imaging is shown to provide objective measurement of temperature changes that are clinically significant.

                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                17 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 17
                : 14
                [1 ]Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristovão, Sergipe 49100-000, Brazil; guacirafraga@ 123456yahoo.com.br (G.S.F.); fjaidar@ 123456gmail.com (F.J.A.); acmarcal@ 123456yahoo.com.br (A.C.M.); desouza@ 123456ufs.br (R.F.S.); abs.vasconcelos@ 123456gmail.com (A.B.V.); dasilvame@ 123456gmail.com (M.E.D.S.-G.)
                [2 ]Group of Studies and Research of Performance, Sport, Health and Paralympic Sports (GEPEPS), Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristovão, Sergipe 49100-000, Brazil; dihogogmc@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]Northeast Network in Biotechnology (RENORBIO), Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe 49100-000, Brazil; jymmys.lopes@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Department of Physical Education, State University of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais 30000-000, Brazil; algcarneiro@ 123456gmail.com
                [5 ]Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Nord University, 7600 Levanger, Norway; roland.v.tillaar@ 123456nord.no
                [6 ]Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072970, Brazil; brenotcabral@ 123456gmail.com
                [7 ]Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development (CIDESD), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-412 Vila Real, Portugal
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: vmreis@ 123456utad.pt ; Tel.: +35-192-754-2814
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Public health

                paralympic powerlifting, ibuprofen, muscle function, muscle damage


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