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      UV photofunctionalization promotes nano-biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium

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          Abstract

          Background

          Although biomimetic apatite coating is a promising way to provide titanium with osteoconductivity, the efficiency and quality of deposition is often poor. Most titanium implants have microscale surface morphology, and an addition of nanoscale features while preserving the micromorphology may provide further biological benefit. Here, we examined the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light treatment of titanium, or photofunctionalization, on the efficacy of biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium and its biological capability.

          Methods and results

          Micro-roughed titanium disks were prepared by acid-etching with sulfuric acid. Micro-roughened disks with or without photofunctionalization (20-minute exposure to UV light) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 or 5 days. Photofunctionalized titanium disks were superhydrophilic and did not form surface air bubbles when immersed in SBF, whereas non-photofunctionalized disks were hydrophobic and largely covered with air bubbles during immersion. An apatite-related signal was observed by X-ray diffraction on photofunctionalized titanium after 1 day of SBF immersion, which was equivalent to the one observed after 5 days of immersion of control titanium. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nodular apatite deposition in the valleys and at the inclines of micro-roughened structures without affecting the existing micro-configuration. Micro-roughened titanium and apatite-deposited titanium surfaces had similar roughness values. The attachment, spreading, settling, proliferation, and alkaline phosphate activity of bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were promoted on apatite-coated titanium with photofunctionalization.

          Conclusion

          UV-photofunctionalization of titanium enabled faster deposition of nanoscale biomimetic apatite, resulting in the improved biological capability compared to the similarly prepared apatite-deposited titanium without photofunctionalization. Photofunctionalization-assisted biomimetic apatite deposition may be a novel method to effectively enhance micro-roughened titanium surfaces without altering their microscale morphology.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder.

          A key tenet of bone tissue engineering is the development of scaffold materials that can stimulate stem cell differentiation in the absence of chemical treatment to become osteoblasts without compromising material properties. At present, conventional implant materials fail owing to encapsulation by soft tissue, rather than direct bone bonding. Here, we demonstrate the use of nanoscale disorder to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce bone mineral in vitro, in the absence of osteogenic supplements. This approach has similar efficiency to that of cells cultured with osteogenic media. In addition, the current studies show that topographically treated MSCs have a distinct differentiation profile compared with those treated with osteogenic media, which has implications for cell therapies.
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            Advancing dental implant surface technology--from micron- to nanotopography.

            Current trends in clinical dental implant therapy include use of endosseous dental implant surfaces embellished with nanoscale topographies. The goal of this review is to consider the role of nanoscale topographic modification of titanium substrates for the purpose of improving osseointegration. Nanotechnology offers engineers and biologists new ways of interacting with relevant biological processes. Moreover, nanotechnology has provided means of understanding and achieving cell specific functions. The various techniques that can impart nanoscale topographic features to titanium endosseous implants are described. Existing data supporting the role of nanotopography suggest that critical steps in osseointegration can be modulated by nanoscale modification of the implant surface. Important distinctions between nanoscale and micron-scale modification of the implant surface are presently considered. The advantages and disadvantages of nanoscale modification of the dental implant surface are discussed. Finally, available data concerning the current dental implant surfaces that utilize nanotopography in clinical dentistry are described. Nanoscale modification of titanium endosseous implant surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses that may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy.
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              On implant surfaces: a review of current knowledge and opinions.

              The aims of the present review are (1) to identify essential surface parameters; (2) to present an overview of surface characteristics at the micrometer and nanometer levels of resolution relevant for the four most popular oral implant systems; (3) to discuss potential advantages of nanoroughness, hydrophilicity, and biochemical bonding; and (4) to suggest a hypothetical common mechanism behind strong bone responses to novel implant surfaces from different commercial companies. Oral implants from four major companies varied in average surface roughness (Sa) from 0.3 to 1.78 microm and in the developed surface area ratio (Sdr) from 24% to 143%, with the smoothest implants originating from Biomet 3i and the roughest from Institut Straumann. The original Branemark turned, machined surface had an Sa of 0.9 microm and an Sdr of 34%, making it clearly rougher than the smoothest implants examined. When evaluated for nanometer roughness, there was a substantial variation in Sa in the different implants from the four major companies. Novel implants from Biomet 3i, AstraTech, and Straumann differed from their respective predecessors in microroughness, physicochemical properties, and nano_roughness. When examined with scanning electron microscopy at high magnification, it was noted that these novel implant surfaces all had particular nanoroughness structures that were not present in their respective predecessors; this finding was suggested as a possible common mechanism behind the demonstrated stronger bone responses to these implants compared to adequate controls.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2016
                12 January 2016
                : 11
                : 223-234
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Complete Denture Prosthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan
                [3 ]Division of Molecular and Regenerative Prosthodontics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Prosthodontics and Oral Rehabilitation, Kanagawa Dental University Graduate School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan
                [5 ]Yokosuka-Shonan Disaster Health Emergency Research Center and ESR Laboratories, Kanagawa Dental University Graduate School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Takahiro Ogawa, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, UCLA School of Dentistry, 10833 Le Conte Avenue (B3-081 CHS), Box 951668, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668, USA, Tel +1 310 825 0727, Fax +1 310 8256345, Email togawa@ 123456dentistry.ucla.edu
                Article
                ijn-11-223
                10.2147/IJN.S95249
                4716735
                26834469
                © 2016 Saita et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed

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