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Descriptive Characteristics of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases in Turkey

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      Pneumoconiosis and advanced occupational lung disease among surface coal miners--16 states, 2010-2011.

        (2012)
      Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a chronic occupational lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of dust, which triggers inflammation of the alveoli, eventually resulting in irreversible lung damage. CWP ranges in severity from simple to advanced; the most severe form is progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Advanced CWP is debilitating and often fatal. To prevent CWP, the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established the current federal exposure limit for respirable dust in underground and surface coal mines. The Act also established a surveillance system for assessing prevalence of pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners, but this surveillance does not extend to surface coal miners. With enforcement of the exposure limit, the prevalence of CWP among underground coal miners declined from 11.2% during 1970-1974 to 2.0% during 1995-1999, before increasing unexpectedly in the last decade, particularly in Central Appalachia. Exposure to respirable dust is thought to be less in surface than underground coal miners. Although they comprise 48% of the coal mining workforce, surface coal miners have not been studied since 2002. To assess the prevalence, severity, and geographic distribution of pneumoconiosis among current surface coal miners, CDC obtained chest radiographs of 2,328 miners during 2010-2011 through the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Forty-six (2.0%) of 2,257 miners with >1 year of surface mining experience had CWP, including 37 who had never worked underground. Twelve (0.5%) had PMF, including nine who had never worked underground. A high proportion of the radiographs suggested silicosis, a disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica. Surface coal mine operators should monitor worker exposures closely to ensure that both respirable dust and silica are below recommended levels to prevent CWP. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for advanced pneumoconiosis among surface coal miners, in addition to underground coal miners, to facilitate prompt disease identification and intervention.
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        The role of cell injury and the continuing inflammatory response in the generation of silicotic pulmonary fibrosis.

        The pathogenesis of silicosis involves interaction between pulmonary macrophages and fibroblasts. The consequences of direct injury to pulmonary cells and the role of inflammatory cells other than the macrophage have received little attention. These were studied over a 20 week period after instilling silica to mice by correlating the changing inflammatory response, as revealed by bronchoalveolar lavage and lung sections, with the cellular location of silica particles and the development and resolution of granulomatous lesions. Within 24 h, a massive concentration of particles and PMN was seen in centrilobular locations with acute focal necrosis of type 1 epithelial cells. Rapid epithelial repair occurred but PMN were recovered from the lung up to 20 weeks. In the alveoli, silica was ingested by PMN and AM, resulting in the death of some cells; free particles crossed the epithelium and were found predominantly in peribronchial macrophages. Silicotic granulomas formed within a week and consisted mainly of fibroblasts macrophages and some PMN. It is suggested that the necrosis of type 1 epithelium and the continuing efflux with serial destruction of PMN may be important factors in the generation of silicotic fibrosis.
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          Lung-function impairment among US underground coal miners, 2005 to 2009: geographic patterns and association with coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

          To investigate contemporary geographic distributions of lung-function impairment and radiographic evidence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and their associations. From 2005 to 2009, 6373 underground coal miners completed a health survey, including spirometry testing and chest radiography. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis were determined by NIOSH B readers, using the International Labour Office classification. Prevalences of CWP and spirometry less than lower normal limits were mapped by county, and their association assessed. The prevalences of abnormal spirometry results and CWP were 13.1% and 4.0%, respectively. Counties with elevated prevalences for both the outcomes were located in contiguous areas of southeastern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, and eastern Pennsylvania. Prevalence of abnormal spirometry results increases with increasing category of simple CWP and progressive massive fibrosis. Abnormal spirometry in coal miners is associated with CWP; these two health outcomes have similar geographic distributions.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1. Dept. of Public Health, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University , Zonguldak, Turkey
            2. Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital , Ankara, Turkey
            3. Zonguldak Uzunmehmet Chest and Occupational Diseases Hospital , Zonguldak, Turkey
            Author notes
            * Corresponding Author: Email: fayoglu@ 123456yahoo.com
            Journal
            Iran J Public Health
            Iran. J. Public Health
            IJPH
            Iranian Journal of Public Health
            Tehran University of Medical Sciences
            2251-6085
            2251-6093
            March 2014
            : 43
            : 3
            : 389-390
            25988105
            4419183
            IJPH-43-389
            Copyright © Iranian Public Health Association & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

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