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      Spatial and temporal changes in electricity demand regulatory during pandemic periods: The case of COVID-19 in Doha, Qatar

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          Abstract

          The propagation of the pandemic times, especially during COVID-19, has caused millions of morbidity and mortality cases across the world, forcing people to change their lifestyles and governments to take different measures to slow down the spread of the disease. Consequently, electricity demand and consumption patterns across other socioeconomic sectors were affected by the pandemic. This study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on spatiotemporal electricity demand and consumption across six socioeconomic sectors in Doha City, Qatar. The electricity demand and consumption were assessed for three time periods in the pandemic year (pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown) compared to electricity consumption prior to the pandemic year (2017–2019). The empirical analysis was performed on a geographically visualized map to determine the areas with high and low electricity consumption. The pattern has been compared before and during the pandemic with previous years. The results show that electricity consumption has increased in the residential and governmental sectors and declined in the industrial and commercial sectors during the lockdown period compared to the post-lockdown period, particularly in the summer season. Mapping the hot/cold spots areas and the temporal analysis of the changing patterns of electricity demand and consumption could provide useful insight to decision-makers for targeted interventions.

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          Indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment

          This research aims to show the positive and negative indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment, particularly in the most affected countries such as China, USA, Italy, and Spain. Our research shows that there is a significant association between contingency measures and improvement in air quality, clean beaches and environmental noise reduction. On the other hand, there are also negative secondary aspects such as the reduction in recycling and the increase in waste, further endangering the contamination of physical spaces (water and land), in addition to air. Global economic activity is expected to return in the coming months in most countries (even if slowly), so decreasing GHG concentrations during a short period is not a sustainable way to clean up our environment.
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            Effect of lockdown amid COVID-19 pandemic on air quality of the megacity Delhi, India

            Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, a nationwide lockdown is imposed in India initially for three weeks from 24th March to 14th April 2020 and extended up to 3rd May 2020. Due to the forced restrictions, pollution level in cities across the country drastically slowed down just within few days which magnetize discussions regarding lockdown to be the effectual alternative measures to be implemented for controlling air pollution. The present article eventually worked on this direction to look upon the air quality scenario amidst the lockdown period scientifically with special reference to the megacity Delhi. With the aid of air quality data of seven pollutant parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and NH3) for 34 monitoring stations spread over the megacity we have employed National Air Quality Index (NAQI) to show the spatial pattern of air quality in pre and during-lockdown phases. The results demonstrated that during lockdown air quality is significantly improved. Among the selected pollutants, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 have witnessed maximum reduction (>50%) in compare to the pre-lockdown phase. In compare to the last year (i.e. 2019) during the said time period the reduction of PM10 and PM2.5 is as high as about 60% and 39% respectively. Among other pollutants, NO2 (−52.68%) and CO (−30.35%) level have also reduced during-lockdown phase. About 40% to 50% improvement in air quality is identified just after four days of commencing lockdown. About 54%, 49%, 43%, 37% and 31% reduction in NAQI have been observed in Central, Eastern, Southern, Western and Northern parts of the megacity. Overall, the study is thought to be a useful supplement to the regulatory bodies since it showed the pollution source control can attenuate the air quality. Temporary such source control in a suitable time interval may heal the environment.
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              A preliminary assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on environment – A case study of China

              The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is seriously threatening world public health security. Currently, >200 countries and regions have been affected by the epidemic, with the number of infections and deaths still increasing. As an extreme event, the outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly damaged the global economic growth and caused a certain impact on the environment. This paper takes China as a case study, comprehensively evaluating the dynamic impact of COVID-19 on the environment. The analysis results indicate that the outbreak of COVID-19 improves China's air quality in the short term and significantly contributes to global carbon emission reduction. However, in the long run, there is no evidence that this improvement will continue. When China completely lifts the lockdown and resumes large-scale industrial production, its energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to exceed the level before the event. Moreover, COVID-19 significantly reduces the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The decline initially occurred near Wuhan and eventually spread to the whole country. The above phenomenon shows that the decreasing economic activities and traffic restrictions directly lead to the changes of China's energy consumption and further prevent the environment from pollution. The results in this study support the fact that strict quarantine measures can not only protect the public from COVID-19, but also exert a positive impact on the environment. These findings can provide a reference for other countries to assess the influence of COVID-19 on the environment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Energy Strategy Reviews
                The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                2211-467X
                2211-467X
                4 March 2022
                May 2022
                4 March 2022
                : 41
                : 100826
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Geography, Collage of Arts and Social Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
                [b ]Applied Geography and GIS Program, Department of Humanities, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box: 2713, Doha, Qatar
                [c ]College of Computer and Information Technology, American University in the Emirates, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                [d ]Department of Geography and Urban Planning, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates
                [e ]Department of Geography, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author.
                Article
                S2211-467X(22)00026-8 100826
                10.1016/j.esr.2022.100826
                8894860
                42c5481b-6b54-42d4-b5d7-dc87e8064f6d
                © 2022 The Authors

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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                electricity consumption,electricity load profile,spatiotemporal analysis,covid-19 impact on electricity,qatar

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