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      Herpes Zoster in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Series of Three Cases


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          Kidney transplant recipients require lifelong immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection. The need for this intervention, however, leads to decreased cellular immunity and, in turn, increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ) from reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus. HZ commonly presents as a painful rash in a dermatome presentation followed by post-herpetic neuralgia. In immunosuppressed individuals, the presentation can be atypical and vary in severity depending on degree of immunosuppression and host immune response. We present the clinical course of 3 kidney transplant recipients who developed HZ after transplantation at different times post-transplant with varying clinical manifestations. The balance between maintaining immunosuppression and preventing or subsequently treating disseminated disease is discussed.

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          Practical Guide to Vaccination in All Stages of CKD, Including Patients Treated by Dialysis or Kidney Transplantation

          Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including those receiving maintenance dialysis or with a kidney transplant. Although responses to vaccines are impaired in these populations, immunizations remain an important component of preventative care due to their favorable safety profiles and the high rate of infection in these patients. Most guidelines for patients with CKD focus on the importance of the hepatitis B, influenza, and pneumococcal vaccines in addition to age-appropriate immunizations. More data are needed to determine the clinical efficacy of these immunizations and others in this population and define optimal dosing and timing for administration. Studies have suggested that there may be a benefit to immunization before the onset of dialysis or transplantation because patients with early-stage CKD generally have higher rates of seroconversion. Because nephrologists often serve as primary care physicians for patients with CKD, it is important to understand the role of vaccinations in the preventive care of this patient population.
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            Common infections in kidney transplant recipients.

            Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. To some extent, these may be preventable. Careful pretransplant screening, immunization, and post-transplant prophylactic antimicrobials may all reduce the risk for post-transplant infection. However, because transplant recipients may not manifest typical signs and symptoms of infection, diagnoses may be confounded. Furthermore, treatment regimens may be complicated by drug interactions and the need to maintain immunosuppression to avoid allograft rejection. This article reviews common post-transplant infections, including prophylactic, diagnostic, and treatment strategies, providing guidance regarding care of kidney transplant patients with infection.
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              Immunogenicity and Safety of the Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Chronically Immunosuppressed Adults Following Renal Transplant: A Phase 3, Randomized Clinical Trial

              Abstract Background The incidence of herpes zoster is up to 9 times higher in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients than in the general population. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in renal transplant (RT) recipients ≥18 years of age receiving daily immunosuppressive therapy. Methods In this phase 3, randomized (1:1), observer-blind, multicenter trial, RT recipients were enrolled and received 2 doses of RZV or placebo 1–2 months (M) apart 4–18M posttransplant. Anti–glycoprotein E (gE) antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies, and vaccine response rates were assessed at 1M post–dose 1, and 1M and 12M post–dose 2. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 days after each dose, respectively. Solicited general symptoms and unsolicited AEs were also collected 7 days before first vaccination. Serious AEs (including biopsy-proven allograft rejections) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were recorded up to 12M post–dose 2. Results Two hundred sixty-four participants (RZV: 132; placebo: 132) were enrolled between March 2014 and April 2017. gE-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were higher in RZV than placebo recipients across postvaccination time points and persisted above prevaccination baseline 12M post–dose 2. Local AEs were reported more frequently by RZV than placebo recipients. Overall occurrences of renal function changes, rejections, unsolicited AEs, serious AEs, and pIMDs were similar between groups. Conclusions RZV was immunogenic in chronically immunosuppressed RT recipients. Immunogenicity persisted through 12M postvaccination. No safety concerns arose. Clinical Trials Registration NCT02058589.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
                S. Karger AG
                September - December 2020
                02 November 2020
                : 10
                : 3
                : 139-146
                [_a] aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
                [_b] bDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, California, USA
                [_c] cDepartment of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
                Author notes
                *Ramy M. Hanna, UC Irvine Medical Center, Department of Medicine Division of Nephrology, 333 The City Dr. Suite 400, Orange, CA 92868 (USA), rhannamd81@yahoo.com, ramyh1@hs.uci.edu
                508807 Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2020;10:139–146
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 24 February 2020
                : 14 May 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
                Case Report

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Varicella zoster,Renal transplant,Disseminated zoster,Acyclovir
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                Varicella zoster, Renal transplant, Disseminated zoster, Acyclovir


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