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      An Herbal Galactagogue Mixture Increases Milk Production and Aquaporin Protein Expression in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats

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          Abstract

          Background. Herbal galactagogues have been increasingly used to treat postpartum hypogalactia. The mechanism of action of herbal galactagogues remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an herbal galactagogue mixture on milk production and aquaporin (AQP) expression in lactating rats. Methods. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into virgin, lactating + H 2O, and lactating + galactagogue groups ( n = 10 per group). Lactating rats were administered the decoction of an herbal galactagogue mixture by oral gavage or the same amount of distilled water. Results. The herbal decoction significantly increased milk production in lactating rats ( P < 0.05). Both immunohistochemical staining and western blot showed that protein levels of AQP-3 and AQP-5 were significantly increased during lactation compared with virgin stage and the herbal decoction further elevated their expression ( P < 0.05). AQP-1 was predominantly expressed in the capillaries whereas AQP-3 and AQP-5 were mainly detected in the epithelial cells and ducts of the mammary glands. Conclusion. The expression of AQPs in the mammary glands of rats was developmentally regulated. Herbal galactagogues might have increased milk secretion by regulating the expression and function of AQPs in the mammary glands.

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          Most cited references26

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          Distribution of AQP2 and AQP3 water channels in human tissue microarrays.

          The objective of this investigation was to use semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution and expression levels of AQP2 and AQP3 proteins in normal human Tissue MicroArrays. Expression of the vasopressin regulated AQP2 was observed in a limited number of tissues. AQP2 was prominent in the apical and subapical plasma membranes of cortical and medullary renal collecting ducts. Surprisingly, weak AQP2 immunoreactivity was also noted in pancreatic islets, fallopian tubes and peripheral nerves. AQP2 was also localized to selected parts of the central nervous system (ependymal cell layer, subcortical white matter, hippocampus, spinal cord) and selected cells in the gastrointestinal system (antral and oxyntic gastric mucosa, small intestine and colon). These findings corroborate the restricted tissue distribution of AQP2. AQP3 was strongly expressed in many of the human tissues examined particularly in basolateral membranes of the distal nephron (medullary collecting ducts), distal colon, upper airway epithelia, transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder, tracheal, bronchial and nasopharyngeal epithelium, stratified squamous epithelial cells of the esophagus, and anus. AQP3 was moderately expressed in basolateral membranes of prostatic tubuloalveolar epithelium, pancreatic ducts, uterine endometrium, choroid plexus, articular chondrocytes, subchondral osteoblasts and synovium. Low AQP3 levels were also detected in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, gastric pits, seminiferous tubules, lymphoid vessels, salivary and endocrine glands, amniotic membranes, placenta and ovary. The abundance of basolateral AQP3 in epithelial tissues and its expression in many non-epithelial cells suggests that this aquaglyceroporin is a major participant in barrier hydration and water and osmolyte homeostasis in the human body.
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            Glycerol replacement corrects defective skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier function in aquaporin-3-deficient mice.

            Mice deficient in the epidermal water/glycerol transporter aquaporin-3 (AQP3) have reduced stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin elasticity, and impaired barrier recovery after SC removal. SC glycerol content is reduced 3-fold in AQP3 null mice, whereas SC structure, protein/lipid composition, and ion/osmolyte content are not changed. We show here that glycerol replacement corrects each of the defects in AQP3 null mice. SC water content, measured by skin conductance and 3H2O accumulation, was 3-fold lower in AQP3 null vs. wild-type mice, but became similar after topical or systemic administration of glycerol in quantities that normalized SC glycerol content. SC water content was not corrected by glycerol-like osmolytes such as xylitol, erythritol, and propanediol. Orally administered glycerol fully corrected the reduced skin elasticity in AQP3 null mice as measured by the kinetics of skin displacement after suction, and the delayed barrier recovery as measured by transepidermal water loss after tape-stripping. Analysis of [14C]glycerol kinetics indicated reduced blood-to-SC transport of glycerol in AQP3 null mice, resulting in slowed lipid biosynthesis. These data provide functional evidence for a physiological role of glycerol transport by an aquaglyceroporin, and indicate that glycerol is a major determinant of SC water retention, and mechanical and biosynthetic functions. Our findings establish a scientific basis for the >200-yr-old empirical practice of including glycerol in cosmetic and medicinal skin formulations.
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              Domperidone and long QT syndrome.

              Domperidone is a prokinetic agent widely prescribed in adults and children with gastrointestinal disorders. Recently several Regulatory Agencies published safety information on the risk of long QT syndrome associated with the use of domperidone. We conducted a literature review using PubMed (1966 - Jan 2010) with the aim to locate articles on ventricular arrhytmias, Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD), long QT syndrome and Torsade de Pointes (TdP) following domperidone administration. Twenty-two papers were included in the review: three studies in vitro models, one animal study, five case reports/series, twelve clinical studies and one editorial. In vitro studies demonstrated cardiac electrophysiological effects of domperidone on the rapid component of the cardiac delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)) through the blockade of channels encoded by the Human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (HERG). A total of fourteen cases of cardiotoxicity following intravenous (12 cases) or oral (2 cases) domperidone administration from case reports/series were identified. A case - control study, performed on a general practice observational database reported an OR: 3.8 (95% CI: 1.5-9.7) for SCD after domperidone exposure. Prescribers and other healthcare professionals should take into account the risk of QT syndrome in domperidone users and avoid administering domperidone in patients concomitantly taking strong CYP3A4 inhibitors or other QT prolonging drugs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2015
                5 May 2015
                5 May 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, China
                2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Raffaele Capasso

                Article
                10.1155/2015/760585
                4436503
                42cf8cf8-0816-4c65-9bd4-4bcfff114043
                Copyright © 2015 Haibin Liu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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