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      Effects of an Elastic Resistance Band Intervention in Adolescent Handball Players

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          Abstract

          The objective was to investigate the effects of a 9-week elastic resistance band training within the regular handball training sessions compared to regular handball training only. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (INT: n=16; age: 17.0 ± 0.7 years) or a control (CON: n=16; age: 16.9 ± 0.9 years) group. The INT-group performed elastic resistance band exercises (3/week) for 20–30 minutes while the CON-group conducted regular handball training only. Pre- and post-training assessments included measures of strength endurance (Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test [CKCUEST]), maximal isometric strength (MIS), and throwing velocity. Significant main effects of Test (i.e. pre- to post-training enhancements) were detected for the CKCUEST (p < 0.001, 0.54 ≤ η p 2 ≤ 0.57) and throwing velocity (p = 0.001, η p 2 = 0.34). We found a significant (throwing velocity: p = 0.004, η p 2 = 0.25) and a tendency toward (MIS of the internal rotators, non-throwing arm: p = 0.068, η p 2 = 0.12) a significant Test × Group interaction, both in favour of the INT-group. A 9-week strengthening program using elastic resistance bands combined with regular handball training is effective to improve upper extremity strength endurance, throwing velocity, and MIS of the internal rotators of the non-throwing arm.

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          Most cited references36

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          Ethical Standards in Sport and Exercise Science Research: 2020 Update.

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            Enhancing a Somatic Maturity Prediction Model.

            Assessing biological maturity in studies of children is challenging. Sex-specific regression equations developed using anthropometric measures are widely used to predict somatic maturity. However, prediction accuracy was not established in external samples. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the fit of these equations, assess for overfitting (adjusting as necessary), and calibrate using external samples.
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              Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability test (CKCUES test): a reliability study in persons with and without shoulder impingement syndrome

              Background The Close Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUES test) is a low cost shoulder functional test that could be considered as a complementary and objective clinical outcome for shoulder performance evaluation. However, its reliability was tested only in recreational athletes’ males and there are no studies comparing scores between sedentary and active samples. The purpose was to examine inter and intrasession reliability of CKCUES Test for samples of sedentary male and female with (SIS), for samples of sedentary healthy male and female, and for male and female samples of healthy upper extremity sport specific recreational athletes. Other purpose was to compare scores within sedentary and within recreational athletes samples of same gender. Methods A sample of 108 subjects with and without SIS was recruited. Subjects were tested twice, seven days apart. Each subject performed four test repetitions, with 45 seconds of rest between them. The last three repetitions were averaged and used to statistical analysis. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC2,1 was used to assess intrasession reliability of number of touches score and ICC2,3 was used to assess intersession reliability of number of touches, normalized score, and power score. Test scores within groups of same gender also were compared. Measurement error was determined by calculating the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM) and Minimum detectable change (MDC) for all scores. Results The CKCUES Test showed excellent intersession reliability for scores in all samples. Results also showed excellent intrasession reliability of number of touches for all samples. Scores were greater in active compared to sedentary, with exception of power score. All scores were greater in active compared to sedentary and SIS males and females. SEM ranged from 1.45 to 2.76 touches (based on a 95% CI) and MDC ranged from 2.05 to 3.91(based on a 95% CI) in subjects with and without SIS. At least three touches are needed to be considered a real improvement on CKCUES Test scores. Conclusion Results suggest CKCUES Test is a reliable tool to evaluate upper extremity functional performance for sedentary, for upper extremity sport specific recreational, and for sedentary males and females with SIS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sports Med Int Open
                Sports Med Int Open
                10.1055/s-00032056
                Sports Medicine International Open
                Georg Thieme Verlag KG (Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany )
                2367-1890
                August 2021
                25 August 2021
                1 August 2021
                : 5
                : 2
                : E65-E72
                Affiliations
                Division of Movement and Training Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence Dr. Julian Bauer Division of Movement and Training SciencesUniversity of Duisburg-EssenGladbecker Str. 18245141 EssenGermany+49201 183 7325 julian.bauer@ 123456uni-due.de
                Article
                smio12-2020-0176
                10.1055/a-1541-2916
                8387127
                42d0ebe8-3527-410d-84f9-9ad9bdc32beb
                The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License, which permits unrestricted reproduction and distribution, for non-commercial purposes only; and use and reproduction, but not distribution, of adapted material for non-commercial purposes only, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funding: We acknowledge support by the Open Access Publication Fund of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The funding body is independent of the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.
                Categories
                Training & Testing

                training sciences,elastic resistance band exercises,handball training

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