The objective was to investigate the effects of a 9-week elastic resistance band training within the regular handball training sessions compared to regular handball training only. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (INT: n=16; age: 17.0 ± 0.7 years) or a control (CON: n=16; age: 16.9 ± 0.9 years) group. The INT-group performed elastic resistance band exercises (3/week) for 20–30 minutes while the CON-group conducted regular handball training only. Pre- and post-training assessments included measures of strength endurance (Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test [CKCUEST]), maximal isometric strength (MIS), and throwing velocity. Significant main effects of Test (i.e. pre- to post-training enhancements) were detected for the CKCUEST (p < 0.001, 0.54 ≤ η p 2 ≤ 0.57) and throwing velocity (p = 0.001, η p 2 = 0.34). We found a significant (throwing velocity: p = 0.004, η p 2 = 0.25) and a tendency toward (MIS of the internal rotators, non-throwing arm: p = 0.068, η p 2 = 0.12) a significant Test × Group interaction, both in favour of the INT-group. A 9-week strengthening program using elastic resistance bands combined with regular handball training is effective to improve upper extremity strength endurance, throwing velocity, and MIS of the internal rotators of the non-throwing arm.