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      Long-Term Observation of the Vitreomacular Relationship in Normal Fellow Eyes of Patients with Unilateral Idiopathic Macular Holes

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To describe long-term changes in the vitreomacular relationship in normal fellow eyes of patients with unilateral idiopathic macular holes (MHs). Methods: This is a retrospective, observational case series. The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for idiopathic MHs between May 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Patients who had clinically normal fellow eyes and underwent 12 months or more of follow-up were included. The vitreomacular relationship in the fellow eyes was evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Results: The study included 153 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years and a mean follow-up of 33.5 months (range, 12-121). The incidence of vitreomacular attachments evaluated by OCT was 52% (80 eyes) at initial examination, which decreased to 41, 37 and 23% at 1, 2 and 3 years after the initial examination, respectively. Of the 80 eyes with vitreomacular attachments at initial examination, 40 (50%) still had vitreomacular attachments at the final visit. Of the remaining 40 eyes in which vitreomacular separation occurred during follow-up, 11 (28%) developed an MH, with a mean interval of 45 months. None of the eyes with vitreomacular separation at presentation developed an MH. Conclusion: This largest series of fellow eyes of MHs followed by OCT shows that, at presentation, about half of the patients already have premacular vitreous detachment and therefore no risk of MH, and that second MH develops in about 30% in the process of vitreomacular separation, which evolves over a prolonged period.

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          Most cited references17

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          Reappraisal of biomicroscopic classification of stages of development of a macular hole.

          J Gass (1995)
          To update the biomicroscopic classification and anatomic interpretations of the stages of development of age-related macular hole and provide explanations for the remarkable recovery of visual acuity that occurs in some patients after vitreous surgery. Recent biomicroscopic observations of various stages of macular holes are used to postulate new anatomic explanations for these stages. Biomicroscopic observations include the following: (1) the change from a yellow spot (stage 1-A) to a yellow ring (stage 1-B) during the early stages of foveal detachment is unique to patients at risk of macular hole; (2) the prehole opacity with a small stage 2 hole may be larger than the hole diameter; and (3) the opacity resembling an operculum that accompanies macular holes is indistinguishable from a pseudo-operculum found in otherwise normal fellow eyes. The change from a yellow spot (stage 1-A) to a yellow ring (stage 1-B) is caused primarily by centrifugal displacement of retinal receptors after a dehiscence at the umbo. The hole may be hidden by semiopaque contracted prefoveolar vitreous cortex bridging the yellow ring (stage 1-B occult hole). Stage 1-B occult holes become manifest (stage 2 holes) either after early separation of the contracted prefoveolar vitreous cortex from the retina surrounding a small hole or as an eccentric can-opener-like tear in the contracted prefoveolar vitreous cortex, at the edge of larger stage 2 holes. Most prehole opacities probably contain no retinal receptors (pseudo-opercula). Surgical reattachment of the retina surrounding the hole and centripetal movement of the foveolar retina induced by gliosis may restore foveal anatomy and function to near normal.
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            Posterior vitreous detachment: evolution and complications of its early stages.

            To summarize emerging concepts regarding the onset and progression, traction effects, and complications of the early stages of age-related posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Interpretive essay. Review and synthesis of selected literature, with clinical illustrations, interpretation, and perspective. Imaging of the vitreoretinal interface with optical coherence tomography has shown that PVD begins in the perifoveal macula. Recent longitudinal studies have demonstrated conclusively that early PVD stages persist chronically and progress slowly over months to years. Vitreous traction forces resulting from perifoveal PVD with a small vitreofoveolar adhesion (500 microm or less) may cause localized cystoid foveal thickening or one of several macular hole conditions. Traction associated with larger adhesion zones may cause or exacerbate a separate group of macular disorders. Ultrastructural studies suggest that epiretinal membrane develops from cortical vitreous remnants left on the retinal surface after PVD and plays an important role in traction vitreomaculopathies. Age-related PVD is an insidious, chronic event that begins in the perifoveal macula and evolves over a prolonged period before vitreopapillary separation. Although asymptomatic in most individuals, its early stages may be complicated by a variety of macular and optic disc pathologic features, determined in part by the size and strength of the residual vitreoretinal adhesion. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Initial stages of posterior vitreous detachment in healthy eyes of older persons evaluated by optical coherence tomography.

              To promote understanding of the development of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We studied 209 eyes of 209 healthy volunteers (165 men and 44 women; mean age, 52.3 years [range, 31-74 years]). In addition to biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy, OCT was performed to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional images of the vitreoretinal interface in the posterior fundus. The condition of the posterior vitreoretinal interface was classified as 1 of 5 stages, according to biomicroscopic findings and OCT images relative to discrete linear signals indicating a detached posterior vitreous face: stage 0, no PVD (61 eyes [29.2%]); stage 1, incomplete perifoveal PVD in up to 3 quadrants (100 eyes [47.8%]); stage 2, incomplete perifoveal PVD in all quadrants, with residual attachment to the fovea and optic disc (26 eyes [12.4%]); stage 3, incomplete PVD over the posterior pole, with residual attachment to the optic disc (4 eyes [1.9%]); or stage 4, complete PVD identified with biomicroscopy, but not with OCT because of instrument limitations (18 eyes [8.6%]). Stage 1, 2, and 3 incomplete PVD without subjective symptoms was not recognizable on contact lens biomicroscopy. There was a significant age-related progression in the condition of the vitreoretinal interface from stage 0 to stage 4. The superior quadrant was usually the initial site of incomplete PVD. Optical coherence tomography demonstrates that healthy human eyes have incomplete or partial PVD beginning as early as the fourth decade of life. Age-related PVD occurs initially as a focal detachment in the perifovea of 1 quadrant, with persistent attachment to the fovea and optic nerve head, with a predilection for the superior quadrant. It extends its range slowly for years and eventually results in complete PVD, associated with release of vitreopapillary adhesion.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2014
                December 2014
                14 August 2014
                : 232
                : 4
                : 188-193
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima City Hospital, and bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan
                Author notes
                *Akinori Uemura, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima City Hospital, 20-17 Kajiya-cho, Kagoshima 892-8580 (Japan), E-Mail akiu@ml.kch.kagoshima.kagoshima.jp
                Article
                362460 Ophthalmologica 2014;232:188-193
                10.1159/000362460
                25139372
                42d136d4-d7af-40aa-821d-f1e21cd7b2a9
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 08 January 2014
                : 22 March 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Posterior vitreous detachment,Fellow eye,Vitreomacular interface,Optical coherence tomography,Macular hole

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