+1 Recommend
1 collections
      Call for Papers in Kidney and Blood Pressure ResearchKidney Function and Omics Science

      Submission Deadline: December 20, 2023

      Submit now

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Long-Term Outcomes of Cinacalcet and Paricalcitol Titration Protocol for Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Long-term outcomes of combined cinacalcet and paricalcitol therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients failing traditional therapies with phosphate binders and active vitamin D compound analogs are not well described. We implemented a titration protocol for cinacalcet and paricalcitol and assessed its long-term effects on bone metabolism and disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-five patients were started on 30 mg of cinacalcet daily. After 12 months, median cinacalcet dose was 60 mg. There was a 33% increase in number of patients receiving paricalcitol. Average corrected serum calcium (Ca) decreased from 9.5 to 8.8 mg/dl (p = 0.003, 95% CI 0.34–1.04); phosphorus (P) from 6.2 to 5.5 mg/dl (p = 0.047, 95% CI 0.01–1.34); Ca × P product from 58 to 48 (p = 0.001, 95% CI 4.2–15.7); and intact PTH (iPTH) from 426 ± 274 to 300 ± 228 pg/ml (p = 0.03, 95% CI 19.3–401.7). Number of patients achieving three or more K/DOQI criteria increased by 29% (p = 0.009).

          Related collections

          Most cited references18

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving hemodialysis.

          Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D and calcium in patients receiving dialysis is often complicated by hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease and adverse clinical outcomes. Calcimimetics target the calcium-sensing receptor and lower parathyroid hormone levels without increasing calcium and phosphorus levels. We report the results of two identical randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet hydrochloride. Patients who were receiving hemodialysis and who had inadequately controlled secondary hyperparathyroidism despite standard treatment were randomly assigned to receive cinacalcet (371 patients) or placebo (370 patients) for 26 weeks. Once-daily doses were increased from 30 mg to 180 mg to achieve intact parathyroid hormone levels of 250 pg per milliliter or less. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with values in this range during a 14-week efficacy-assessment phase. Forty-three percent of the cinacalcet group reached the primary end point, as compared with 5 percent of the placebo group (P<0.001). Overall, mean parathyroid hormone values decreased 43 percent in those receiving cinacalcet but increased 9 percent in the placebo group (P<0.001). The serum calcium-phosphorus product declined by 15 percent in the cinacalcet group and remained unchanged in the placebo group (P<0.001). Cinacalcet effectively reduced parathyroid hormone levels independently of disease severity or changes in vitamin D sterol dose. Cinacalcet lowers parathyroid hormone levels and improves calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in patients receiving hemodialysis who have uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Activated injectable vitamin D and hemodialysis survival: a historical cohort study.

            Patients with ESRD commonly experience secondary hyperparathyroidism, a condition primarily managed with activated injectable vitamin D. The biologic effects of vitamin D, however, are widespread, and it is possible that activated injectable vitamin D alters survival in ESRD. This hypothesis was tested in a historical cohort study of incident hemodialysis patients who lived throughout the United States between January 1996 and December 1999. The primary outcome was 2-yr survival among those who survived for at least 90 d after initiation of chronic hemodialysis. During this period, 51,037 chronic hemodialysis patients survived for at least 90 d from the initiation of hemodialysis, and in the ensuing 2 yr, 37,173 received activated injectable vitamin D and 13,864 did not. At 2 yr, mortality rates were 13.8/100 person-years in the group that received injectable vitamin D compared with 28.6/100 person-years in the group that did not (P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusting for several potential confounders and examining injectable vitamin D therapy as a time-dependent exposure suggested that compared with patients who did not receive injectable vitamin D, the 2-yr survival advantage associated with the group that did receive injectable vitamin D was 20% (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 0.83). The incidence of cardiovascular-related mortality was 7.6/100 person-years in the injectable vitamin D group, compared with 14.6/100 person-years in the non-vitamin D group (P < 0.001). The benefit of injectable vitamin D was evident in 48 of 49 strata examined, including those with low serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone and elevated levels of serum calcium and phosphorus, situations in which injectable vitamin D is often withheld. Repeating the entire analysis using marginal structural models to adjust for time-dependent confounding by indication yielded a survival advantage of 26% (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.79) associated with the injectable vitamin D group. In this historical cohort study, chronic hemodialysis patients in the group that received injectable vitamin D had a significant survival advantage over patients who did not. Randomized clinical trials would permit definitive conclusions.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence?

              Vitamin D is metabolised by a hepatic 25-hydroxylase into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and by a renal 1alpha-hydroxylase into the vitamin D hormone calcitriol. Calcitriol receptors are present in more than thirty different tissues. Apart from the kidney, several tissues also possess the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase, which is able to use circulating 25(OH)D as a substrate. Serum levels of 25(OH)D are the best indicator to assess vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, hypovitaminosis, adequacy, and toxicity. European children and young adults often have circulating 25(OH)D levels in the insufficiency range during wintertime. Elderly subjects have mean 25(OH)D levels in the insufficiency range throughout the year. In institutionalized subjects 25(OH)D levels are often in the deficiency range. There is now general agreement that a low vitamin D status is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Moreover, vitamin D insufficiency can lead to a disturbed muscle function. Epidemiological data also indicate a low vitamin D status in tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, hypertension, and specific types of cancer. Some intervention trials have demonstrated that supplementation with vitamin D or its metabolites is able: (i) to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients; (ii) to improve blood glucose levels in diabetics; (iii) to improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The oral dose necessary to achieve adequate serum 25(OH)D levels is probably much higher than the current recommendations of 5-15 microg/d.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                May 2007
                12 April 2007
                : 27
                : 3
                : 274-278
                Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA
                101727 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:274–278
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 10 August 2006
                : 12 March 2007
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 5
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                End-stage renal disease,Cinacalcet,Vitamin D,Osteodystrophy
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                End-stage renal disease, Cinacalcet, Vitamin D, Osteodystrophy


                Comment on this article