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      Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

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          Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate.

          The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host.

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          Most cited references55

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          Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis.

          Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that is common in the developed world. However, we know less about its biology and pathogenicity than we do about other less prevalent pathogens. Interest in C. jejuni has increased in recent years as a result of the growing appreciation of its importance as a pathogen and the availability of new model systems and genetic and genomic technologies. C. jejuni establishes persistent, benign infections in chickens and is rapidly cleared by many strains of laboratory mouse, but causes significant inflammation and enteritis in humans. Comparing the different host responses to C. jejuni colonization should increase our understanding of this organism.
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            Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: a food production perspective.

            Campylobacters remain highly important zoonotic pathogens worldwide which infect an estimated 1% of the population of Western Europe each year. Certain campylobacters are also important in infections of animals, particularly of the reproductive tract, and some are involved in periodontal disease. This paper focuses, however, on the two species which are most important in food-borne infections of humans, Campylobacter (C.) jejuni and C. coli. Infection with these campylobacters is serious in its own right but can also have long-term sequelae such as reactive arthritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The pathogens are ubiquitous in nature and in domestic animals and, as a consequence, are found frequently in the environment and on many raw foods, of both plant and animal origin and bacterial numbers can be very high on certain key foods like raw poultry meat. Although all commercial poultry species can carry campylobacters, the risk is greater from chicken because of the high levels of consumption. Campylobacters are relatively 'new' zoonotic pathogens as routine culture from clinical specimens only became possible in the late 1970s. As a consequence there is much that still needs to be understood about the behaviour and pathogenicity of these highly important bacteria. In particular, and from a food industry/food safety perspective, it is important to better understand the behaviour of C. jejuni and C. coli in the food production environment, and how this affects their ability to survive certain food production processes. There is a belief that campylobacters are much more sensitive to hostile conditions than either salmonellas or Escherichia coli. Much of data to support this view have been derived from laboratory experiments and may not fully represent the natural situation. Studies are showing that campylobacters may be more robust than previously thought and thus may represent a greater challenge to food safety. We recommend that research is undertaken to better understand how campylobacters behave in the food chain and how responses to relevant conditions affect their ability to survive processing and their virulence. There is also a need to better understand the reasons why campylobacters are capable of frequent change, particularly in the expression of surface antigens.
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              The clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species.

              A growing number of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni and C. coli have been recognized as emerging human and animal pathogens. Although C. jejuni continues to be the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, advances in molecular biology and development of innovative culture methodologies have led to the detection and isolation of a range of under-recognized and nutritionally fastidious Campylobacter spp., including C. concisus, C. upsaliensis and C. ureolyticus. These emerging Campylobacter spp. have been associated with a range of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly gastroenteritis, IBD and periodontitis. In some instances, infection of the gastrointestinal tract by these bacteria can progress to life-threatening extragastrointestinal diseases. Studies have shown that several emerging Campylobacter spp. have the ability to attach to and invade human intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, damage intestinal barrier integrity, secrete toxins and strategically evade host immune responses. Members of the Campylobacter genus naturally colonize a wide range of hosts (including pets, farm animals and wild animals) and are frequently found in contaminated food products, which indicates that these bacteria are at risk of zoonotic transmission to humans. This Review presents the latest information on the role and clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter spp. in gastrointestinal health and disease.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 March 2012
                : 2
                : 1
                : 61-65
                [ 1 ] Clinic for Poultry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany
                [ 2 ] Clinic for Poultry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, D-30559, Hannover, Germany
                Author notes

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                colonization pattern, Campylobacter jejuni ,T cells,chicken,cytokines


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