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      Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging epidemic focus of Leishmania tropica in north Morocco

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          Most cited references 14

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          Visceral infection caused by Leishmania tropica in veterans of Operation Desert Storm.

           Wei Sun,  M Grogl,  C. Oster (1993)
          Visceral leishmaniasis, usually caused by Leishmania donovani, has rarely been reported from eastern Saudi Arabia, so it was not expected to affect the soldiers of Operation Desert Storm. We evaluated eight soldiers with visceral leishmanial infection, examining their serum with an immunofluorescent-antibody assay, examining their marrow or biopsy tissue for amastigotes with an indirect immunofluorescent-monoclonal-antibody assay, and culturing the parasites. Cultured promastigotes were isolated and characterized by isoenzyme analysis. None of the eight soldiers had classic signs or symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Seven soldiers had unexplained fever, chronic fatigue, malaise, cough, intermittent diarrhea, or abdominal pain that began up to seven months after they returned to the United States; one had no symptoms. Five had adenopathy or mild, transient hepatosplenomegaly. None had cutaneous manifestations. Diagnoses were made by bone marrow aspiration (seven patients) or lymph-node biopsy (one patient). Six isolates have been identified as L. tropica, which usually causes only cutaneous disease. Of the six patients treated with sodium stibogluconate, five improved and one remained symptomatic. L. tropica can produce visceral infection that can cause unexplained systemic illness in persons returning from areas where this organism is endemic.
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            Indian kala-azar caused by Leishmania tropica.

             R. Saran,  S Sinha,  F Neva (1995)
            Kala-azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, in India is generally assumed to be a result of infection with Leishmania donovani. 15 parasite isolates collected over the past 10 years from patients with classical disease were typed by monoclonal antibodies, isoenzymes, and kDNA analysis. 4 were shown to be L tropica, a species historically associated with cutaneous disease and more recently a mild "visceralising" disease from the Desert Storm experience. The results confirm that L tropica is a co-endemic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in India, and may shed light on the rising frequency of therapeutic unresponsiveness to sodium antimony gluconate, which complicates treatment of this lethal disease.
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              Short report: Leishmania tropica: etiologic agent of a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco.

              The domestic dog has been previously demonstrated to be the reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the etiologic agent of human visceral leishmaniasis around the Mediterranean Basin. It can also be infected with L. tropica, the etiologic agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco. We report a canine L. tropica visceral infection for the first time in Morocco.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                Elsevier BV
                00359203
                November 1997
                November 1997
                : 91
                : 6
                : 660-663
                Article
                10.1016/S0035-9203(97)90511-3
                © 1997

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