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      Intracellular versus cell surface assembly of retroviral pseudotypes is determined by the cellular localization of the viral glycoprotein, its capacity to interact with Gag, and the expression of the Nef protein.

      The Journal of Biological Chemistry

      metabolism, Viral Envelope Proteins, virology, Tumor Virus Infections, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Retroviridae Infections, Membrane Glycoproteins, Liver Neoplasms, physiology, growth & development, Leukemia Virus, Murine, Lentivirus Infections, Lentivirus, cytology, Kidney, Humans, Hemagglutinins, Gene Products, nef, Gene Products, gag, Gene Products, env, Endosomes, Cercopithecus aethiops, Cell Membrane, Cell Line, Tumor, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, COS Cells, Animals

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          Retroviral Gag and Env glycoproteins (GPs) are expressed from distinct cellular areas and need to encounter to interact and assemble infectious particles. Retroviral particles may also incorporate GPs derived from other enveloped viruses via active or passive mechanisms, a process known as "pseudotyping." To further understand the mechanisms of pseudotyping, we have investigated the capacity of murine leukemia virus (MLV) or lentivirus core particles to recruit GPs derived from different virus families: the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G), the hemagglutinin from an influenza virus, the E1E2 glycoproteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV-E1E2), and the retroviral Env glycoproteins of MLV and RD114 cat endogenous virus. The parameters that influenced the incorporation of viral GPs onto retroviral core particles were (i) the intrinsic cell localization properties of both viral GP and retroviral core proteins, (ii) the ability of the viral GP to interact with the retroviral core, and (iii) the expression of the lentiviral Nef protein. Whereas the hemagglutinin and VSV-G glycoproteins were recruited by MLV and lentivirus core proteins at the cell surface, the HCV and MLV GPs were most likely recruited in late endosomes. In addition, whereas these glycoproteins could be passively incorporated on either retrovirus type, the MLV GP was also actively recruited by MLV core proteins, which, through interactions with the cytoplasmic tail of the latter GP, induced its localization to late endosomal vesicles. Finally, the expression of Nef proteins specifically enhanced the incorporation of the retroviral GPs by increasing their localization in late endosomes.

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