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          Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities.

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          Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk.

          An estimated 779 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, of whom 106 million (13.6%) live in irrigation schemes or in close proximity to large dam reservoirs. We identified 58 studies that examined the relation between water resources development projects and schistosomiasis, primarily in African settings. We present a systematic literature review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (1) to update at-risk populations of schistosomiasis and number of people infected in endemic countries, and (2) to quantify the risk of water resources development and management on schistosomiasis. Using 35 datasets from 24 African studies, our meta-analysis showed pooled random risk ratios of 2.4 and 2.6 for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively, among people living adjacent to dam reservoirs. The risk ratio estimate for studies evaluating the effect of irrigation on urinary schistosomiasis was in the range 0.02-7.3 (summary estimate 1.1) and that on intestinal schistosomiasis in the range 0.49-23.0 (summary estimate 4.7). Geographic stratification showed important spatial differences, idiosyncratic to the type of water resources development. We conclude that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects.
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            Schistosomiasis and neglected tropical diseases: towards integrated and sustainable control and a word of caution.

            In May 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed a resolution which urged member states to attain, by 2010, a minimum target of regularly administering anthelminthic drugs to at least 75% and up to 100% of all school-aged children at risk of morbidity. The refined global strategy for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis was issued in the following year and large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs endorsed as the central feature. This strategy has subsequently been termed 'preventive chemotherapy'. Clearly, the 2001 WHA resolution led the way for concurrently controlling multiple neglected tropical diseases. In this paper, we recall the schistosomiasis situation in Africa in mid-2003. Adhering to strategic guidelines issued by the World Health Organization, we estimate the projected annual treatment needs with praziquantel among the school-aged population and critically discuss these estimates. The important role of geospatial tools for disease risk mapping, surveillance and predictions for resource allocation is emphasised. We clarify that schistosomiasis is only one of many neglected tropical diseases and that considerable uncertainties remain regarding global burden estimates. We examine new control initiatives targeting schistosomiasis and other tropical diseases that are often neglected. The prospect and challenges of integrated control are discussed and the need for combining biomedical, educational and engineering strategies and geospatial tools for sustainable disease control are highlighted. We conclude that, for achieving integrated and sustainable control of neglected tropical diseases, a set of interventions must be tailored to a given endemic setting and fine-tuned over time in response to the changing nature and impact of control. Consequently, besides the environment, the prevailing demographic, health and social systems contexts need to be considered.
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              Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: report of a WHO expert committee


                Author and article information

                Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo
                Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
                Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
                Instituto de Medicina Tropical
                11 July 2016
                : 58
                [1 ]Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mails: saldawaki@
                [2 ]Endemic and Tropical Diseases Unit, Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: halmekhlafi@
                [3 ]Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yar'adua University. Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria. E-mail: hamidmck@
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi. E.mail: halmekhlafi@ , Dr. Init Ithoi. E.mail:, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: +6-03-7967 3789 ; Fax: +6-03-7967 4754.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 71, Pages: 1
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