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      Species-Level Deconvolution of Metagenome Assemblies with Hi-C–Based Contact Probability Maps

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          Abstract

          Microbial communities consist of mixed populations of organisms, including unknown species in unknown abundances. These communities are often studied through metagenomic shotgun sequencing, but standard library construction methods remove long-range contiguity information; thus, shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of a metagenome typically yield a collection of contigs that cannot readily be grouped by species. Methods for generating chromatin-level contact probability maps, e.g., as generated by the Hi-C method, provide a signal of contiguity that is completely intracellular and contains both intrachromosomal and interchromosomal information. Here, we demonstrate how this signal can be exploited to reconstruct the individual genomes of microbial species present within a mixed sample. We apply this approach to two synthetic metagenome samples, successfully clustering the genome content of fungal, bacterial, and archaeal species with more than 99% agreement with published reference genomes. We also show that the Hi-C signal can secondarily be used to create scaffolded genome assemblies of individual eukaryotic species present within the microbial community, with higher levels of contiguity than some of the species’ published reference genomes.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Basic local alignment search tool.

          A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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            Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform

            Motivation: The enormous amount of short reads generated by the new DNA sequencing technologies call for the development of fast and accurate read alignment programs. A first generation of hash table-based methods has been developed, including MAQ, which is accurate, feature rich and fast enough to align short reads from a single individual. However, MAQ does not support gapped alignment for single-end reads, which makes it unsuitable for alignment of longer reads where indels may occur frequently. The speed of MAQ is also a concern when the alignment is scaled up to the resequencing of hundreds of individuals. Results: We implemented Burrows-Wheeler Alignment tool (BWA), a new read alignment package that is based on backward search with Burrows–Wheeler Transform (BWT), to efficiently align short sequencing reads against a large reference sequence such as the human genome, allowing mismatches and gaps. BWA supports both base space reads, e.g. from Illumina sequencing machines, and color space reads from AB SOLiD machines. Evaluations on both simulated and real data suggest that BWA is ∼10–20× faster than MAQ, while achieving similar accuracy. In addition, BWA outputs alignment in the new standard SAM (Sequence Alignment/Map) format. Variant calling and other downstream analyses after the alignment can be achieved with the open source SAMtools software package. Availability: http://maq.sourceforge.net Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
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              Structure, Function and Diversity of the Healthy Human Microbiome

              Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin, and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics, and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analyzed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats to date. We found the diversity and abundance of each habitat’s signature microbes to vary widely even among healthy subjects, with strong niche specialization both within and among individuals. The project encountered an estimated 81–99% of the genera, enzyme families, and community configurations occupied by the healthy Western microbiome. Metagenomic carriage of metabolic pathways was stable among individuals despite variation in community structure, and ethnic/racial background proved to be one of the strongest associations of both pathways and microbes with clinical metadata. These results thus delineate the range of structural and functional configurations normal in the microbial communities of a healthy population, enabling future characterization of the epidemiology, ecology, and translational applications of the human microbiome.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-5065
                Author notes

                Supporting information is available online at http://www.g3journal.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1534/g3.114.011825/-/DC1

                Sequencing datasets generated by this study have been deposited in the NCBI Short Read Archive under the accession SRP041431.

                [2 ]Corresponding authors: University of Washington, Foege Building S-403B, Box 355065, 3720 15th Ave NE, Seattle, WA 98195-5065. E-mail: maitreya@ 123456uw.edu ; and University of Washington, Foege Building S-250, Box 355065, 3720 15th Ave NE, Seattle, WA 98195-5065. E-mail: shendure@ 123456uw.edu
                Journal
                G3 (Bethesda)
                Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                2160-1836
                22 May 2014
                July 2014
                : 4
                : 7
                : 1339-1346
                GGG_011825
                10.1534/g3.114.011825
                4455782
                24855317
                Copyright © 2014 Burton et al

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Unported License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Pages: 8
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                Investigations
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                v1

                Genetics

                clustering algorithms, metagenomics, metagenome assembly, hi-c

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