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      The National and Global Impact of Systemic and Structural Violence on the Effective Prevention, Treatment, and Management of COVID-19 in African or Black Communities: Protocol for a Scoping Review


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          As COVID-19 ravages the globe and cases increase rapidly, countries are presented with challenging policy choices to contain and mitigate its spread. In Canada and globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has added a new stratum to the debate concerning the root causes of global and racial health inequities and disparities. Individuals who exist as targets of systemic inequities are not only more susceptible to contracting COVID-19, but also more likely to bear the greatest social, economic, and physical burdens. Therefore, data collection that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on the lives and health of African/Black communities worldwide is needed to develop intersectional, culturally relative, antiracist/antioppression, and empowerment-centered interventions and social policies for supporting affected communities.


          The primary objective of this review is to investigate the impact and management of COVID-19 among African/Black individuals and communities, and understand how anti-Black racism and intersectional violence impact the health of African/Black communities during the pandemic. Moreover, the study aims to explore research pertaining to the impact of COVID-19 on Black communities in the global context. We seek to determine how Black communities are impacted with regard to structural violence, systematic racism, and health outcomes, and the ways in which attempts have been made to mitigate or manage the consequences of the pandemic and other injurious agents.


          A systematic search of quantitative and qualitative studies published on COVID-19 will be conducted in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (EBSCO), Cochrane Library, PsychInfo (Ovid), CAB Abstracts (Ovid), Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate), and Global Index Medicus. To be included in the review, studies should present data on COVID-19 in relation to African/Black individuals, populations, and communities in the global sphere. Studies must discuss racism, oppression, antioppression, or systemic and structural violence and be published in English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines, the findings will be synthesized quantitatively and qualitatively through thematic analysis. The risk of bias will not be assessed.


          Title, abstract, and full-text screening concluded in June 2022. Data collection is in progress and is expected to be completed by December 2022. Data analysis and drafting of the manuscript will be done thereafter. Findings from the scoping review are expected to be provided for peer review in 2023.


          This review will collect important data and evidence related to COVID-19 in African/Black communities. The findings could help identify existing gaps in COVID-19 management in African/Black communities and inform future research paradigms. Furthermore, the findings could be applied to decision-making for health policy and promotion, and could potentially influence services provided by health care facilities and community organizations around the globe.

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          PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation

          Scoping reviews, a type of knowledge synthesis, follow a systematic approach to map evidence on a topic and identify main concepts, theories, sources, and knowledge gaps. Although more scoping reviews are being done, their methodological and reporting quality need improvement. This document presents the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) checklist and explanation. The checklist was developed by a 24-member expert panel and 2 research leads following published guidance from the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network. The final checklist contains 20 essential reporting items and 2 optional items. The authors provide a rationale and an example of good reporting for each item. The intent of the PRISMA-ScR is to help readers (including researchers, publishers, commissioners, policymakers, health care providers, guideline developers, and patients or consumers) develop a greater understanding of relevant terminology, core concepts, and key items to report for scoping reviews.
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            Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement

            Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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              Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework


                Author and article information

                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Research Protocols
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                October 2022
                17 October 2022
                17 October 2022
                : 11
                : 10
                : e40381
                [1 ] Dalla Lana School of Public Health University of Toronto Toronto, ON Canada
                [2 ] Gerstein Science Information Centre University of Toronto Toronto, ON Canada
                [3 ] Health Research Methods Evidence and Impact McMaster University Hamilton, ON Canada
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Roberta Timothy roberta.timothy@ 123456utoronto.ca
                Author information
                ©Roberta Timothy, Robert Ainsley Chin-see, Julia Martyniuk, Pascal Djiadeu. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (https://www.researchprotocols.org), 17.10.2022.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.researchprotocols.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 22 June 2022
                : 10 July 2022
                : 22 September 2022
                : 24 September 2022

                african,black people,covid-19,systemic and structural barriers,health disparities,minority health,racism,racial health inequity,structural violence,anti-black racism,decolonizing,resistance,social justice


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