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      Testosterone replacement in 49,XXXXY syndrome: andrological, metabolic and neurological aspects

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Summary

          We report the case of a 19-year-old boy, presenting several congenital malformations (facial dysmorphisms, cardiac and musculoskeletal abnormalities), mental retardation, recurrent respiratory infections during growth and delayed puberty. Although previously hospitalised in other medical centres, only psychological support had been recommended for this patient. In our department, genetic, biochemical/hormonal and ultrasound examinations were undertaken. The karyotype was 49,XXXXY, a rare aneuploidy with an incidence of 1/85 000–100 000, characterised by the presence of three extra X chromosomes in phenotypically male subjects. The hormonal/biochemical profile showed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency. The patient was then treated with testosterone replacement therapy. After 12 months of treatment, we observed the normalisation of testosterone levels. There was also an increase in pubic hair growth, testicular volume and penis size, weight loss, homeostatic model assessment index reduction and the normalisation of vitamin D values. Moreover, the patient showed greater interaction with the social environment and context.

          Learning points

          • In cases of plurimalformative syndrome, cognitive impairment, recurrent infections during growth and, primarily, delayed puberty, it is necessary to ascertain as soon as possible whether the patient is suffering from hypogonadism or metabolic disorders due to genetic causes. In our case, the diagnosis of hypogonadism, and then of 49,XXXXY syndrome, was unfortunately made only at the age of 19 years.

          • The testosterone replacement treatment, even though delayed, induced positive effects on: i) development of the reproductive system, ii) regulation of the metabolic profile and iii) interaction with the social environment and context.

          • However, earlier and timely hormonal replacement treatment could probably have improved the quality of life of this subject and his family.

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          Most cited references 9

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          48,XXYY, 48,XXXY and 49,XXXXY syndromes: not just variants of Klinefelter syndrome.

          Sex chromosome tetrasomy and pentasomy conditions occur in 1:18,000-1:100,000 male births. While often compared with 47,XXY/Klinefelter syndrome because of shared features including tall stature and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, 48,XXYY, 48,XXXY and 49,XXXXY syndromes are associated with additional physical findings, congenital malformations, medical problems and psychological features. While the spectrum of cognitive abilities extends much higher than originally described, developmental delays, cognitive impairments and behavioural disorders are common and require strong treatment plans. Future research should focus on genotype-phenotype relationships and the development of evidence-based treatments. The more complex physical, medical and psychological phenotypes of 48,XXYY, 48,XXXY and 49,XXXXY syndromes make distinction from 47,XXY important; however, all of these conditions share features of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and the need for increased awareness, biomedical research and the development of evidence-based treatments. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
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            Risks and Benefits of Late Onset Hypogonadism Treatment: An Expert Opinion

            Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a syndromic condition that has a well-recognized association with sexual and reproductive failure. LOH is frequently associated with chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, osteoporosis, HIV infection, renal failure, and obstructive pulmonary diseases. Despite this evidence, in patients with these conditions, LOH is still only rarely investigated and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) rarely considered. In this paper, we critically reviewed the available evidence on LOH treatment focusing on possible risks and benefits. Medical therapy of LOH should be individualized depending on the etiology of the disease and the patient's expectations. The fear of prostate cancer and the risk of erythrocytosis probably represent the main limitations of TRT in aging men. However, TRT in healthy older men in near physiological doses does not appear to incur serious adverse events, although regular monitoring of prostate-specific antigen and hematocrit levels is required. Available evidence also suggests that TRT might ameliorate central obesity and glycometabolic control in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In addition, TRT has been associated with an increase in bone mineral density in men with osteoporosis, with an improvement in lean body mass in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as with peripheral oxygenation in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Despite this evidence, however, it should be recognized that the results of these trials were heterogeneous and limited by small sample sizes. Hence, further research is required regarding the long-term benefits and adverse effects of TRT in LOH.
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              Musculoskeletal anomalies in a large cohort of boys with 49, XXXXY.

              49, XXXXY is a rare aneuploidy and variant of Klinefelter syndrome, occurring in 1 per 80,000-100,000 live births. We present a cohort of 40 affected males, focusing on musculoskeletal problems. Subjects were participants in an annual 49er family support group meeting. Children were examined in a multidisciplinary clinic by a pediatric neurologist and geneticist, a pediatric orthopedist, a neurodevelopmentalist, and two physical therapists. The patient data were collected from this clinic from 2004 to 2012. All patients were required to have karyotypes that confirmed the presence of XXXXY. There was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly hypotonia (34 patients [85%]), radioulnar synostosis (30 [75%]), pes planus (26 [65%]), asymmetric hip rotation (27 [67.5%]), and clinodactyly (24 [60%]). Other, less common lower-extremity disorders, included, 5 patients (12.5%) with unilateral club foot, 5 boys (12.5%) with pes cavus, 10 patients (25%) genu valgum and 2 children with genu varus (5%). To our knowledge, this is the first large cohort of boys with 49, XXXXY that focuses on musculoskeletal disorders. There was an increased incidence of hypotonia, clubfoot, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, radioulnar synostosis, and pes planus compared to the normative population. Boys with 49, XXXXY would benefit from multidisciplinary evaluations, particularly from pediatric orthopedists, physical therapists, neurologists, and geneticists for appropriate medical care. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                edm
                EDM Case Reports
                Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                2052-0573
                23 December 2015
                2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Andrology Unit, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, University of Rome “Sapienza” , Via di Grottarossa 103500189, Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Genetics Unit, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, University of Rome “Sapienza” , Via di Grottarossa 103500189, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to R Mazzilli Email: rossella.mazzilli@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                EDM150114
                10.1530/EDM-15-0114
                4709582
                © 2016 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

                Categories
                Error in Diagnosis/Pitfalls and Caveats

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