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      Adenosine A2A Receptor Gene Knockout Prevents l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Induced Dyskinesia by Downregulation of Striatal GAD67 in 6-OHDA-Lesioned Parkinson’s Mice

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          l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l-DOPA) remains the primary pharmacological agent for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) limits the long-term use of l-DOPA for PD patients. Some data have reported that adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) antagonists prevented LID in animal model of PD. However, the mechanism in which adenosine A 2AR blockade alleviates the symptoms of LID has not been fully clarified. Here, we determined to knock out (KO) the gene of A 2AR and explored the possible underlying mechanisms implicated in development of LID in a mouse model of PD. A 2AR gene KO mice were unilaterally injected into the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in order to damage dopamine neurons on one side of the brain. 6-OHDA-lesioned mice were then injected once daily for 21 days with l-DOPA. Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) were evaluated on days 3, 8, 13, and 18 after l-DOPA administration, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and GAD67 were performed. We found that A 2AR gene KO was effective in reducing AIM scores and accompanied with decrease of striatal GAD67, rather than GAD65. These results demonstrated that the possible mechanism involved in alleviation of AIM symptoms by A 2AR gene KO might be through reducing the expression of striatal GAD67.

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          Neurostimulation for Parkinson's disease with early motor complications.

          Subthalamic stimulation reduces motor disability and improves quality of life in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who have severe levodopa-induced motor complications. We hypothesized that neurostimulation would be beneficial at an earlier stage of Parkinson's disease. In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 251 patients with Parkinson's disease and early motor complications (mean age, 52 years; mean duration of disease, 7.5 years) to undergo neurostimulation plus medical therapy or medical therapy alone. The primary end point was quality of life, as assessed with the use of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) summary index (with scores ranging from 0 to 100 and higher scores indicating worse function). Major secondary outcomes included parkinsonian motor disability, activities of daily living, levodopa-induced motor complications (as assessed with the use of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, parts III, II, and IV, respectively), and time with good mobility and no dyskinesia. For the primary outcome of quality of life, the mean score for the neurostimulation group improved by 7.8 points, and that for the medical-therapy group worsened by 0.2 points (between-group difference in mean change from baseline to 2 years, 8.0 points; P=0.002). Neurostimulation was superior to medical therapy with respect to motor disability (P<0.001), activities of daily living (P<0.001), levodopa-induced motor complications (P<0.001), and time with good mobility and no dyskinesia (P=0.01). Serious adverse events occurred in 54.8% of the patients in the neurostimulation group and in 44.1% of those in the medical-therapy group. Serious adverse events related to surgical implantation or the neurostimulation device occurred in 17.7% of patients. An expert panel confirmed that medical therapy was consistent with practice guidelines for 96.8% of the patients in the neurostimulation group and for 94.5% of those in the medical-therapy group. Subthalamic stimulation was superior to medical therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease and early motor complications. (Funded by the German Ministry of Research and others; EARLYSTIM number, NCT00354133.).
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            Sydney Multicenter Study of Parkinson's disease: non-L-dopa-responsive problems dominate at 15 years.

            One-third of the 149 people recruited 15 to 18 years ago in the Sydney Multicenter Study of Parkinson's disease have survived. The original study compared low-dose levodopa with low-dose bromocriptine. We now report the problems experienced by people who survive 15 years from diagnosis. The standardized mortality ratio is significantly elevated at 1.86 and is not significantly different between treatment arms. Falls occur in 81% of patients, and 23% sustained fractures. Cognitive decline is present in 84%, and 48% fulfill the criteria for dementia. Hallucinations and depression are experienced by 50%. Choking has occurred in 50%, symptomatic postural hypotension in 35%, and urinary incontinence in 41%. No patient is still employed, and 40% of patients live in aged care facilities. Although approximately 95% have experienced L-dopa-induced dyskinesia/dystonia and end of dose failure of medication, in the majority, these symptoms are not disabling. Dyskinesia and dystonia were delayed by early use of bromocriptine, but end-of-dose failure appeared at a similar time once L-dopa was added. The rate of disease progression is similar in both arms of the study. We conclude that the most disabling long-term problems of Parkinson's disease relate to the emergence of symptoms that are not improved by L-dopa. Neuroprotective interventions in Parkinson's disease should be judged by their ability to improve non-L-dopa-responsive aspects of the disease, rather than just by their capacity to delay the introduction of L-dopa or reduce its associated side effects. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society.
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              Two genes encode distinct glutamate decarboxylases.

              gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most widely distributed known inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. GABA also serves regulatory and trophic roles in several other organs, including the pancreas. The brain contains two forms of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which differ in molecular size, amino acid sequence, antigenicity, cellular and subcellular location, and interaction with the GAD cofactor pyridoxal phosphate. These forms, GAD65 and GAD67, derive from two genes. The distinctive properties of the two GADs provide a substrate for understanding not only the multiple roles of GABA in the nervous system, but also the autoimmune response to GAD in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                21 March 2017
                : 8
                1Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Antonio Pisani, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy

                Reviewed by: Micaela Morelli, University of Cagliari, Italy; Barbara Picconi, Fondazione Santa Lucia, Italy

                *Correspondence: Guo-qing Zheng, gq_zheng@

                Co-first authors.

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Movement Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

                Copyright © 2017 Yin, Zhang, Chen, Yang, Zheng and Zheng.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 8, Words: 5775
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