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      Chemokines and their Receptors: Multifaceted Roles in Cancer Progression and Potential Value as Cancer Prognostic Markers

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          Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that mediate immune cell chemotaxis and lymphoid tissue development. Recent advances have indicated that chemokines and their cognate receptors play critical roles in cancer-related inflammation and cancer progression. On the basis of these findings, the chemokine system has become a new potential drug target for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the essential roles of the complex network of chemokines and their receptors in cancer progression. Furthermore, we discuss the potential value of the chemokine system as a cancer prognostic marker. The chemokine system regulates the infiltration of immune cells into the tumor microenvironment, which induces both pro- and anti-immunity and promotes or suppresses tumor growth and proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates the promising prognostic value of the chemokine system in cancer patients. While CCL2, CXCL10, and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 can serve as favorable or unfavorable prognostic factors depending on the cancer types, CCL14 and XCL1 possess good prognostic value. Other chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL8, and CXCL12 are poor prognostic markers. Despite vast advances in our understanding of the complex nature of the chemokine system in tumor biology, knowledge about the multifaceted roles of the chemokine system in different types of cancers is still limited. Further studies are necessary to decipher distinct roles within the chemokine system in terms of cancer progression and to validate their potential value in cancer prognosis.

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          Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity.

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            Tumour hypoxia promotes tolerance and angiogenesis via CCL28 and T(reg) cells.

            Although immune mechanisms can suppress tumour growth, tumours establish potent, overlapping mechanisms that mediate immune evasion. Emerging evidence suggests a link between angiogenesis and the tolerance of tumours to immune mechanisms. Hypoxia, a condition that is known to drive angiogenesis in tumours, results in the release of damage-associated pattern molecules, which can trigger the rejection of tumours by the immune system. Thus, the counter-activation of tolerance mechanisms at the site of tumour hypoxia would be a crucial condition for maintaining the immunological escape of tumours. However, a direct link between tumour hypoxia and tolerance through the recruitment of regulatory cells has not been established. We proposed that tumour hypoxia induces the expression of chemotactic factors that promote tolerance. Here we show that tumour hypoxia promotes the recruitment of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells through induction of expression of the chemokine CC-chemokine ligand 28 (CCL28), which, in turn, promotes tumour tolerance and angiogenesis. Thus, peripheral immune tolerance and angiogenesis programs are closely connected and cooperate to sustain tumour growth. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
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              Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in cancer cell migration and invasion.

              Malignant cancer cells utilize their intrinsic migratory ability to invade adjacent tissues and the vasculature, and ultimately to metastasize. Cell migration is the sum of multi-step processes initiated by the formation of membrane protrusions in response to migratory and chemotactic stimuli. The driving force for membrane protrusion is localized polymerization of submembrane actin filaments. Recently, several studies revealed that molecules that link migratory signals to the actin cytoskeleton are upregulated in invasive and metastatic cancer cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress on molecular mechanisms of formation of invasive protrusions used by tumor cells, such as lamellipodia and invadopodia, with regard to the functions of key regulatory proteins of the actin cytoskeleton; WASP family proteins, Arp2/3 complex, LIM-kinase, cofilin, and cortactin.

                Author and article information

                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                24 January 2020
                February 2020
                : 12
                : 2
                College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University-Seoul, Goyang, Gyeonggi 10326, Korea; doha201191@ 123456gmail.com (H.T.T.D.); uatheone@ 123456dongguk.edu (C.H.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: neuroph@ 123456dongguk.edu
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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