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      A synthetic multicellular system for programmed pattern formation.

      Nature

      genetics, Transcription Factors, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Models, Biological, metabolism, Green Fluorescent Proteins, Genetic Engineering, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Fluorescence, cytology, Escherichia coli, embryology, Drosophila melanogaster, Cell Differentiation, Cell Communication, physiology, Body Patterning, Bacterial Proteins, Animals, biosynthesis, analogs & derivatives, 4-Butyrolactone

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          Abstract

          Pattern formation is a hallmark of coordinated cell behaviour in both single and multicellular organisms. It typically involves cell-cell communication and intracellular signal processing. Here we show a synthetic multicellular system in which genetically engineered 'receiver' cells are programmed to form ring-like patterns of differentiation based on chemical gradients of an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal that is synthesized by 'sender' cells. In receiver cells, 'band-detect' gene networks respond to user-defined ranges of AHL concentrations. By fusing different fluorescent proteins as outputs of network variants, an initially undifferentiated 'lawn' of receivers is engineered to form a bullseye pattern around a sender colony. Other patterns, such as ellipses and clovers, are achieved by placing senders in different configurations. Experimental and theoretical analyses reveal which kinetic parameters most significantly affect ring development over time. Construction and study of such synthetic multicellular systems can improve our quantitative understanding of naturally occurring developmental processes and may foster applications in tissue engineering, biomaterial fabrication and biosensing.

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          Journal
          10.1038/nature03461
          15858574

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