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      New Is Old, and Old Is New: Recent Advances in Antibiotic-Based, Antibiotic-Free and Ethnomedical Treatments against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Wound Infections

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          Abstract

          Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen of wound infections. Thus far, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become the major causative agent in wound infections, especially for nosocomial infections. MRSA infections are seldom eradicated by routine antimicrobial therapies. More concerning, some strains have become resistant to the newest antibiotics of last resort. Furthermore, horizontal transfer of a polymyxin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been identified in Enterobacteriaceae, by which resistance to the last group of antibiotics will likely spread rapidly. The worst-case scenario, “a return to the pre-antibiotic era”, is likely in sight. A perpetual goal for antibiotic research is the discovery of an antibiotic that lacks resistance potential, such as the recent discovery of teixobactin. However, when considering the issue from an ecological and evolutionary standpoint, it is evident that it is insufficient to solve the antibiotic dilemma through the use of antibiotics themselves. In this review, we summarized recent advances in antibiotic-based, antibiotic-free and ethnomedical treatments against MRSA wound infections to identify new clues to solve the antibiotic dilemma. One potential solution is to use ethnomedical drugs topically. Some ethnomedical drugs have been demonstrated to be effective antimicrobials against MRSA. A decline in antibiotic resistance can therefore be expected, as has been demonstrated when antibiotic-free treatments were used to limit the use of antibiotics. It is also anticipated that these drugs will have low resistance potential, although there is only minimal evidence to support this claim to date. More clinical trials and animal tests should be conducted on this topic.

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          Most cited references 160

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          Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study.

          Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing colistin resistance that could be transferred to another strain, was isolated from a pig, we conducted further analysis of possible plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. Herein, we report the emergence of the first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance mechanism, MCR-1, in Enterobacteriaceae.
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            Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

            The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to view with concern the lean pipeline for novel therapeutics to treat drug-resistant infections, especially those caused by gram-negative pathogens. Infections now occur that are resistant to all current antibacterial options. Although the IDSA is encouraged by the prospect of success for some agents currently in preclinical development, there is an urgent, immediate need for new agents with activity against these panresistant organisms. There is no evidence that this need will be met in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, we remain concerned that the infrastructure for discovering and developing new antibacterials continues to stagnate, thereby risking the future pipeline of antibacterial drugs. The IDSA proposed solutions in its 2004 policy report, "Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic R&D Stagnates, a Public Health Crisis Brews," and recently issued a "Call to Action" to provide an update on the scope of the problem and the proposed solutions. A primary objective of these periodic reports is to encourage a community and legislative response to establish greater financial parity between the antimicrobial development and the development of other drugs. Although recent actions of the Food and Drug Administration and the 110th US Congress present a glimmer of hope, significant uncertainly remains. Now, more than ever, it is essential to create a robust and sustainable antibacterial research and development infrastructure--one that can respond to current antibacterial resistance now and anticipate evolving resistance. This challenge requires that industry, academia, the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Department of Defense, and the new Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority at the Department of Health and Human Services work productively together. This report provides an update on potentially effective antibacterial drugs in the late-stage development pipeline, in the hope of encouraging such collaborative action.
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              A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance.

              Antibiotic resistance is spreading faster than the introduction of new compounds into clinical practice, causing a public health crisis. Most antibiotics were produced by screening soil microorganisms, but this limited resource of cultivable bacteria was overmined by the 1960s. Synthetic approaches to produce antibiotics have been unable to replace this platform. Uncultured bacteria make up approximately 99% of all species in external environments, and are an untapped source of new antibiotics. We developed several methods to grow uncultured organisms by cultivation in situ or by using specific growth factors. Here we report a new antibiotic that we term teixobactin, discovered in a screen of uncultured bacteria. Teixobactin inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to a highly conserved motif of lipid II (precursor of peptidoglycan) and lipid III (precursor of cell wall teichoic acid). We did not obtain any mutants of Staphylococcus aureus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to teixobactin. The properties of this compound suggest a path towards developing antibiotics that are likely to avoid development of resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                25 April 2016
                May 2016
                : 17
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; doujl@ 123456lzu.edu.cn (J.-L.D.); xiejq@ 123456lzu.edu.cn (J.-Q.X.)
                [2 ]Spinal Surgery Department, Affiliated Hospital of Gansu University of Chinese Medicines, Lanzhou 730020, China; jiangyiwei_lz@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zxg0525@ 123456163.com ; Tel.: +86-931-863-6106
                Article
                ijms-17-00617
                10.3390/ijms17050617
                4881443
                27120596
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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