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      Protective effects of in vitro treatment with zinc, d-aspartate and coenzyme q10 on human sperm motility, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation

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          Abstract

          Background

          Spermatozoa are extremely vulnerable to oxidative stress caused by the unbalance between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems present inside the male reproductive tract. In spite of a large number of clinical studies that claimed the beneficial effects of antioxidant oral administration on sperm physiology and fertility, only a few studies were addressed to evaluate their effects on spermatozoa in vitro. Main aims of the present study were to assess the influence of zinc, D-aspartate and coenzyme Q10, included in the dietary supplement Genadis (Merck Serono), on human sperm motility, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation.

          Methods

          Semen samples, obtained from forty-four patients (23–30 years of age) were enrolled in this study, twenty-four were normospermi c and twenty patients were oligospermic. Semen samples were analysed for sperm progressive motility and kinetics through computer assisted analysis, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation.

          Results

          Main results showed that in both normo and oligospermic samples, total and progressive sperm motility is maintained by in vitro treatment with zinc, D-aspartate and coenzyme Q10, whereas a significant decrease of these parameters occurs in parallel samples incubated in medium alone. Zinc, D-aspartate and coenzyme Q10 also prevented the decrease of sperm kinetics but such an effect was highly significant only in oligospermic samples. Moreover, they also protected spermatozoa by the increase of DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation.

          Conclusions

          Zinc, D-aspartate and coenzyme Q10 exert a direct protective effect on human spermatozoa preventing the decrease of motility and the increase of DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation during in vitro culture.

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          Most cited references46

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          The effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on miscarriage rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Is there an association between high levels of sperm DNA damage and miscarriage? Miscarriage rates are positively correlated with sperm DNA damage levels. Most ejaculates contain a subpopulation of sperm with DNA damage, also referred to as DNA fragmentation, in the form of double or single-strand breaks which have been induced in the DNA prior to or following ejaculation. This DNA damage may be particularly elevated in some subfertile men, hence several studies have examined the link between sperm DNA damage levels and conception and miscarriage rates. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which examined the effect of sperm DNA damage on miscarriage rates was performed. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library without any language restrictions from database inception to January 2012. We used the terms 'DNA damage' or 'DNA fragmentation' combined with 'miscarriage', 'abortion' or 'pregnancy' to generate a set of relevant citations. Data extraction was performed by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis of relative risks of miscarriage was performed with a random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed by the type of DNA damage test, whether the sperm examined were prepared or from raw semen and for pregnancies resulting from IVF or ICSI treatment. We identified 16 cohort studies (2969 couples), 14 of which were prospective. Eight studies used acridine orange-based assays, six the TUNEL assay and two the COMET assay. Meta-analysis showed a significant increase in miscarriage in patients with high DNA damage compared with those with low DNA damage [risk ratio (RR) = 2.16 (1.54, 3.03), P < 0.00001)]. A subgroup analysis showed that the miscarriage association is strongest for the TUNEL assay (RR = 3.94 (2.45, 6.32), P < 0.00001). There is some variation in study characteristics, including the use of different assays and different thresholds for DNA damage and the definition of pregnancy loss. The use of methods which select sperm without DNA damage for use in assisted conception treatment may reduce the risk of miscarriage. This finding indicates that assays detecting DNA damage could be considered in those suffering from recurrent pregnancy loss. Further research is necessary to study the mechanisms of DNA damage and the potential therapeutic effects of antioxidant therapy. None.
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            On the possible origins of DNA damage in human spermatozoa.

            DNA damage in the male germ line has been linked with a variety of adverse clinical outcomes including impaired fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and an enhanced risk of disease in the offspring. The origins of this DNA damage could, in principle, involve: (i) abortive apoptosis initiated post meiotically when the ability to drive this process to completion is in decline (ii) unresolved strand breaks created during spermiogenesis to relieve the torsional stresses associated with chromatin remodelling and (iii) oxidative stress. In this article, we present a two-step hypothesis for the origins of DNA damage in human spermatozoa that highlights the significance of oxidative stress acting on vulnerable, poorly protaminated cells generated as a result of defective spermiogenesis. We further propose that these defective cells are characterized by several hallmarks of 'dysmaturity' including the retention of excess residual cytoplasm, persistent nuclear histones, poor zona binding and disrupted chaperone content. The oxidative stress experienced by these cells may originate from infiltrating leukocytes or, possibly, the entry of spermatozoa into an apoptosis-like cascade characterized by the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species. This oxidative stress may be exacerbated by a decline in local antioxidant protection, particularly during epididymal maturation. Finally, if oxidative stress is a major cause of sperm DNA damage then antioxidants should have an important therapeutic role to play in the clinical management of male infertility. Carefully controlled studies are now needed to critically examine this possibility.
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              The role of sperm oxidative stress in male infertility and the significance of oral antioxidant therapy.

              Oxidative stress in the male germ line is thought to affect male fertility and impact upon normal embryonic development. Accordingly, fertility specialists are actively exploring the diagnosis of such stress in spermatozoa and evaluating the possible use of antioxidants to ameliorate this condition. In this review, evidence for the presence of oxidative stress in human spermatozoa, the origins of this phenomenon, its clinical significance in the aetiology of male infertility and recent advances in methods for its diagnosis and treatment are re-examined. Moreover, an extensive review of the results presented in published clinical studies has been conducted to evaluate the overall impact of oral antioxidants on measures of sperm oxidative stress and DNA damage. Administration of antioxidants to infertile men has been assessed in numerous clinical studies with at least 20 reports highlighting its effect on measures of oxidative stress in human spermatozoa. A qualitative but detailed review of the results revealed that 19 of the 20 studies conclusively showed a significant reduction relating to some measure of oxidative stress in these cells. Strong evidence also supports improved motility, particularly in asthenospermic patients. However, of these studies, only 10 reported pregnancy-related outcomes, with 6 reporting positive associations. Adequately powered, placebo-controlled comprehensive clinical trials are now required to establish a clear role for antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the male germ line, such that the clinical utility of this form of therapy becomes established once and for all.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Reprod Biol Endocrinol
                Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol
                Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E
                BioMed Central
                1477-7827
                2013
                16 August 2013
                : 11
                : 81
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, Via Cinthia, Napoli 80126, Italy
                [2 ]Merck Serono S.p.A., Via Casilina, Roma 125-00176, Italy
                Article
                1477-7827-11-81
                10.1186/1477-7827-11-81
                3765367
                23958080
                43247b9f-1b65-4018-bd7b-6e364a6a4056
                Copyright ©2013 Talevi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 27 April 2013
                : 29 July 2013
                Categories
                Research

                Human biology
                spermatozoa,antioxidants,motility,lipid peroxidation,dna fragmentation
                Human biology
                spermatozoa, antioxidants, motility, lipid peroxidation, dna fragmentation

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