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      Promoting healthful diet and physical activity in the Mexican school system for the prevention of obesity in children Translated title: Promoción de actividad física adecuada y alimentación saludable en el sistema educativo mexicano para la prevención de la obesidad infantil

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          Abstract

          Objective. This paper describes the rationale, design, and methods of a two-year randomized controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an environmental intervention in 27 elementary schools in Mexico City. Materials and methods. There were two units of analysis, school level addressing changes in elementary public part-time schools, and individual-level addressing behavioral changes in students 9 to 11 years of age. Two intensities of an intervention program were implemented (basic and plus), each containing two intervention components: physical activity and nutrition, supported by a communication/education component. Evaluation of the intervention was carried out during the school cycles 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Results. Primary outcomes were overweight and obesity prevalence and fitness; environmental and behavioural measures were also examined. Conclusions. This is the first institutional multilevel, multifactorial project, consistent with the best practices available in current literature, carried out in Mexico to prevent childhood obesity in schools.

          Translated abstract

          Objetivo. El presente trabajo describe el protocolo, objetivo, el diseño y los métodos de un ensayo controlado aleatorio de dos años realizados para evaluar la efectividad de una intervención ambiental en 27 escuelas primarias de la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos. El protocolo consta de dos unidades de análisis: el nivel escolar donde se evaluaron los cambios en el entorno escolar de escuelas primarias publicas de medio tiempo y el nivel individual que evaluó los cambios de comportamiento en alumnos de 9 a 11 años de edad. Se implementaros dos tipos de intervenciones: nutrición y actividad física apoyadas de una estrategia de educación/comunicación. Las intervenciones tuvieron dos intensidades: básica y plus. La evaluación de la efectividad se llevó a cabo durante los ciclos escolares 2006-2007 y 2007-2008. Resultados. Los resultados iniciales reportan los métodos de evaluación de conducta individual así como la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad. La evaluación ambiental reporta el protocolo de evaluación del entorno escolar. Conclusiones. Este es el primer proyecto de la de intervención escolar con un diseño multinivel, multifactorial, basado en literatura científica disponible y en investigación formativa para prevenir la obesidad infantil en las escuelas de la Ciudad de México.

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          Most cited references 90

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          Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective.

           A Bandura (2000)
          The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive influence, and self-reflectiveness about one's capabilities, quality of functioning, and the meaning and purpose of one's life pursuits. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. Social cognitive theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Growing transnational embeddedness and interdependence are placing a premium on collective efficacy to exercise control over personal destinies and national life.
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            An Ecological Perspective on Health Promotion Programs

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              Social Foundation for thought and action: a social cognitive theory

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Queen's University Canada
                [2 ] Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública México
                [3 ] Nutrition and Health Sciences
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                spm
                Salud Pública de México
                Salud pública Méx
                Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (Cuernavaca )
                0036-3634
                2013
                : 55
                : suppl 3
                : 357-373
                S0036-36342013000900003

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Public Health
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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