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Dietary Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds in Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain): Health Risks

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      Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species.

      The daily intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) through the consumption of 14 edible marine species by the general population of Catalonia, Spain, was estimated. Health risks derived from this intake were also assessed. In March-April 2005, samples of sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp were randomly acquired in six cities of Catalonia. Concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined by ICP-MS. On the basis of recent fish and seafood consumption data, the daily intake of these elements was calculated for eight age/sex groups of the population. The highest As concentrations were found in red mullet, 16.6 microg/g of fresh weight, whereas clam and mussel (0.14 and 0.13 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively) were the species with the highest Cd levels. In turn, swordfish (1.93 microg/g of fresh weight) and mussel and salmon (0.15 and 0.10 microg/g of fresh weight) showed the highest concentrations of Hg and Pb, respectively. The highest metal intake through fish and seafood consumption corresponded to As (217.7 microg/day), Cd (1.34 microg/day), and Pb (2.48 microg/day) for male seniors, whereas that of Hg was observed in male adults (9.89 microg/day). The daily intake through fish and seafood consumption of these elements was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWI). The intakes of As, Cd, Pb, and total Hg by the population of Catalonia were below the respective PTWI values. However, the estimated intake of methylmercury for boys, 1.96 microg/kg/week, was over the PTWI.
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        DDT and human health.

         ,  John Beard (2006)
        1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2'bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) was the first widely used synthetic pesticide and is extremely persistent in both the environment and the human body. The introduction of DDT revolutionised agricultural production and has been credited with the elimination of malaria from the United States and Europe. However, DDT is also known to have had major environmental consequences and has been associated with dramatic declines in many animal populations. Although DDT use has generally been restricted since the early 1970s, exposure to the pesticide remains widespread. In developed countries, slow elimination from the body means a large proportion of the population still have detectable levels of DDT, or its metabolite DDE, in their serum or adipose tissue. In developing countries, the pesticide continues to be used for vector control and a significant proportion of breast-fed babies has daily intakes above recommended levels. This review considers the epidemiological evidence for possible adverse effects of human exposure to DDT. Much of this research is weakened by methodological flaws. However, recent methods in breast cancer research using nested studies in cohorts with stored biological samples have allowed a more rigorous assessment of a putative role for DDT in disease aetiology. While DDT does not appear to play a causative role in breast cancer development, there is suggestive evidence for a role in the aetiology of other conditions such as pancreatic cancer, neuropsychological dysfunction, and reproductive outcomes. Research into these and other conditions would benefit from the same rigorous approaches used in breast cancer research. Until further high quality evidence is available, it is still too early, even 60 years after the introduction of this once ubiquitous chemical, to pass judgement on the role of DDT in a number of common diseases.
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          Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs).

           M.M Storelli (2008)
          Edible marine species (fish, cephalopod molluscs, crustaceans) from the Adriatic Sea were analyzed for content in heavy metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Health risks to human via dietary intake of seafood were assessed by the target hazard quotients (THQs) and the toxic equivalent factors (TEFs). Mercury maximum concentrations corresponded to fish (0.07-1.56 microg g(-1)w.w.), followed by cephalopod molluscs (0.10-0.55 microg g(-1)w.w.), and crustaceans (0.27-0.33 microg g(-1)w.w.). Cadmium levels in cephalopods (0.18-0.59 microg g(-1)w.w.) were higher than those in fish (0.01-0.05 microg g(-1)w.w.) and crustaceans (0.02-0.04 microg g(-1)w.w.), while for Pb the concentrations were generally low (fish: ND-1.18 microg g(-1)w.w., cephalopods: ND-0.17 microg g(-1)w.w., crustaceans: ND-0.03 microg g(-1)w.w.). For PCBs, concentrations in fish, cephalopods and crustaceans ranged between 141 and 3,406 ng g(-1)l.w., 190 and 542 ng g(-1)l.w., and 202 and 429 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. Cd and Pb THQ values as well as estimates of PCB TEQ exposure indicated the absence of health risks through consumption of the various seafood. In contrast, mercury TEQs values due to consumption of certain fish species (albacore, rosefish and thornback ray) indicated that human health risk might be of concern.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal
            Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal
            Informa UK Limited
            1080-7039
            1549-7860
            May 28 2010
            May 28 2010
            : 16
            : 3
            : 588-602
            10.1080/10807031003788832
            © 2010

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