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      Hypertension, Arterial Stiffness, and Diabetes: a Prospective Cohort Study

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          Background:

          Whether the combination of different blood pressure and arterial stiffness (AS) status is independently associated with diabetes has not been fully investigated so far. This study aimed at investigating the status of hypertension and AS in determining diabetes.

          Methods:

          This prospective cohort study included 11 156 participants from the Kailuan study. AS was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. We compared the risk of diabetes between individuals with ideal vascular function (defined as normotension with normal AS), normotension with elevated AS, hypertension with normal AS, and hypertension with elevated AS.

          Results:

          After a median follow-up of 6.16 years, diabetes occurred in 768 participants. Compared with ideal vascular function group, the highest risk of diabetes was observed in hypertension with elevated AS group (hazard ratio, 2.42 [95% CI, 1.93–3.03]), followed by normotension with elevated AS group (hazard ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.68–2.66]), hypertension with normal AS group exhibited the lowest risk of diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.08–2.02]). Multiple sensitivity and subgroup analyses yielded similar results. Furthermore, the additional of AS to a conventional model including traditional risk factors had a higher incremental effect on the predictive value for diabetes than the addition of hypertension (the C statistics was 0.707 versus 0.695; the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.65% versus 0.28%; net reclassification improvement was 40.48% versus 34.59%).

          Conclusions:

          Diabetes is associated with not only hypertension but also AS. Additionally, AS shows a better predictive ability than hypertension in predicting diabetes.

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          Most cited references45

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          A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

          Equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are routinely used to assess kidney function. Current equations have limited precision and systematically underestimate measured GFR at higher values. To develop a new estimating equation for GFR: the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Cross-sectional analysis with separate pooled data sets for equation development and validation and a representative sample of the U.S. population for prevalence estimates. Research studies and clinical populations ("studies") with measured GFR and NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 1999 to 2006. 8254 participants in 10 studies (equation development data set) and 3896 participants in 16 studies (validation data set). Prevalence estimates were based on 16,032 participants in NHANES. GFR, measured as the clearance of exogenous filtration markers (iothalamate in the development data set; iothalamate and other markers in the validation data set), and linear regression to estimate the logarithm of measured GFR from standardized creatinine levels, sex, race, and age. In the validation data set, the CKD-EPI equation performed better than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, especially at higher GFR (P < 0.001 for all subsequent comparisons), with less bias (median difference between measured and estimated GFR, 2.5 vs. 5.5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), improved precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the differences, 16.6 vs. 18.3 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), and greater accuracy (percentage of estimated GFR within 30% of measured GFR, 84.1% vs. 80.6%). In NHANES, the median estimated GFR was 94.5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (IQR, 79.7 to 108.1) vs. 85.0 (IQR, 72.9 to 98.5) mL/min per 1.73 m(2), and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.6% to 12.4%) versus 13.1% (CI, 12.1% to 14.0%). The sample contained a limited number of elderly people and racial and ethnic minorities with measured GFR. The CKD-EPI creatinine equation is more accurate than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation and could replace it for routine clinical use. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
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            WITHDRAWN: Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045: results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9th edition

            To provide global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045.
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              Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical Insights and Vascular Mechanisms

              Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are common comorbidities. Hypertension is twice as frequent in patients with diabetes compared with those who do not have diabetes. Moreover, patients with hypertension often exhibit insulin resistance and are at greater risk of diabetes developing than are normotensive individuals. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which is exacerbated by hypertension. Accordingly, diabetes and hypertension are closely interlinked because of similar risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, arterial remodelling, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and obesity. There is also substantial overlap in the cardiovascular complications of diabetes and hypertension related primarily to microvascular and macrovascular disease. Common mechanisms, such as upregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, oxidative stress, inflammation, and activation of the immune system likely contribute to the close relationship between diabetes and hypertension. In this article we discuss diabetes and hypertension as comorbidities and discuss the pathophysiological features of vascular complications associated with these conditions. We also highlight some vascular mechanisms that predispose to both conditions, focusing on advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, inflammation, the immune system, and microRNAs. Finally, we provide some insights into current therapies targeting diabetes and cardiovascular complications and introduce some new agents that may have vasoprotective therapeutic potential in diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Hypertension
                Hypertension
                HYP
                Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Hagerstown, MD )
                0194-911X
                1524-4563
                16 May 2022
                July 2022
                : 79
                : 7
                : 1487-1496
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Neurology (X.T., Y.Z., Y.Z., X.Z., Q.X., A.W.), Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China.
                [2]China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases (X.T., Y.Z., Y.Z., X.Z., Q.X., A.W.), Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China.
                [3]Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (X.T., Y.Z.).
                [4]Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, China (X.T., Y.Z.).
                [5]Department of Cardiology, Kailuan Hospital, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, China (S.C., S.W.).
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Shouling Wu, Department of Cardiology, Kailuan Hospital, North China University of Science and Technology, 57 Xinhua East Rd, Tangshan, 063000 China, Email drwusl@ 123456163.com
                Correspondence to: Anxin Wang, China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.119 South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070 China, Email wanganxin@ 123456bjtth.org
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8113-8276
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6274-7471
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7095-6022
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4351-2877
                Article
                00017
                10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.122.19256
                9172905
                35574838
                433e6635-9637-43ee-ace6-bea79227785e
                © 2022 The Authors.

                Hypertension is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, the use is noncommercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                : 25 February 2022
                : 24 March 2022
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                arterial stiffness,blood pressure,diabetes,hypertension,prospective study

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