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      Analysis of Syndecan- 2 Methylation in Bowel Lavage Fluid for the Detection of Colorectal Neoplasm


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          Syndecan-2 ( SDC2) methylation was previously reported as a sensitive serologic biomarker for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SDC2 methylation is detectable in precancerous lesions and to determine the feasibility of using SDC2 methylation for the detection of CRC and precancerous lesions in bowel lavage fluid (BLF).


          A total of 190 BLF samples were collected from the rectum at the beginning of colonoscopy from patients with colorectal neoplasm and healthy normal individuals. Fourteen polypectomy specimens were obtained during colonoscopy. A bisulfite pyrosequencing assay and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction were conducted to measure SDC2 methylation in tissues and BLF DNA.


          SDC2 methylation was positive in 100% of villous adenoma (VA) and high-grade dysplasia, and hyperplastic polyp samples; 88.9% of tubular adenoma samples; and 0% of normal mucosa samples. In the BLF DNA test for SDC2 methylation, the sensitivity for detecting CRC and VA was 80.0% and 64.7%, respectively, at a specificity of 88.9%. The BLF of patients with multiple tubular adenomas, single tubular adenoma and hyperplastic polyps showed 62.8%, 26.7% and 28.6% rates of methylation-positive SDC2, respectively.


          Our results demonstrated that SDC2 methylation was a frequent event in precancerous lesions and showed high potential in BLF for detecting patients with colorectal neoplasm.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Genome-scale analysis of aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer.

          Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease in which unique subtypes are characterized by distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here we performed comprehensive genome-scale DNA methylation profiling of 125 colorectal tumors and 29 adjacent normal tissues. We identified four DNA methylation-based subgroups of CRC using model-based cluster analyses. Each subtype shows characteristic genetic and clinical features, indicating that they represent biologically distinct subgroups. A CIMP-high (CIMP-H) subgroup, which exhibits an exceptionally high frequency of cancer-specific DNA hypermethylation, is strongly associated with MLH1 DNA hypermethylation and the BRAF(V600E) mutation. A CIMP-low (CIMP-L) subgroup is enriched for KRAS mutations and characterized by DNA hypermethylation of a subset of CIMP-H-associated markers rather than a unique group of CpG islands. Non-CIMP tumors are separated into two distinct clusters. One non-CIMP subgroup is distinguished by a significantly higher frequency of TP53 mutations and frequent occurrence in the distal colon, while the tumors that belong to the fourth group exhibit a low frequency of both cancer-specific DNA hypermethylation and gene mutations and are significantly enriched for rectal tumors. Furthermore, we identified 112 genes that were down-regulated more than twofold in CIMP-H tumors together with promoter DNA hypermethylation. These represent ∼7% of genes that acquired promoter DNA methylation in CIMP-H tumors. Intriguingly, 48/112 genes were also transcriptionally down-regulated in non-CIMP subgroups, but this was not attributable to promoter DNA hypermethylation. Together, we identified four distinct DNA methylation subgroups of CRC and provided novel insight regarding the role of CIMP-specific DNA hypermethylation in gene silencing.
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            Comparison of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis for the detection of KRAS mutations: diagnostic and clinical implications.

            Mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS oncogene are relatively common in colorectal and lung adenocarcinomas. Recent data indicate that these mutations result in resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Therefore, we assessed Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis for the detection of KRAS codon 12/13 mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, including 58 primary and 42 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas, 63 primary and 17 metastatic lung adenocarcinomas, and 20 normal colon samples. Of 180 tumor samples, 62.2% were KRAS mutant positive, and 37.8% were negative. Melting curve analysis yielded no false positive or false negative results, but had 10% equivocal calls. Melting curve analysis also resulted in 4 cases with melting curves inconsistent with either wild-type or codon 12/13 mutations. These patterns were generated from samples with double mutants in codons 12/13 and with mutations outside of codons 12/13. Pyrosequencing yielded no false positive or false negative results as well. However, two samples from one patient yielded a pyrogram that was flagged as abnormal, but the mutation subtype could not be determined. Finally, using an electronic cutoff of 10%, Sanger sequencing showed 11.1% false positives and 6.1% false negatives. In our hands, the limit of detection for Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis was approximately 15 to 20%, 5%, and 10% mutant alleles, respectively.
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              Fecal DNA versus fecal occult blood for colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population.

              Although fecal occult-blood testing is the only available noninvasive screening method that reduces the risk of death from colorectal cancer, it has limited sensitivity. We compared an approach that identifies abnormal DNA in stool samples with the Hemoccult II fecal occult-blood test in average-risk, asymptomatic persons 50 years of age or older. Eligible subjects submitted one stool specimen for DNA analysis, underwent standard Hemoccult II testing, and then underwent colonoscopy. Of 5486 subjects enrolled, 4404 completed all aspects of the study. A subgroup of 2507 subjects was analyzed, including all those with a diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma or advanced adenoma plus randomly chosen subjects with no polyps or minor polyps. The fecal DNA panel consisted of 21 mutations. The fecal DNA panel detected 16 of 31 invasive cancers, whereas Hemoccult II identified 4 of 31 (51.6 percent vs. 12.9 percent, P=0.003). The DNA panel detected 29 of 71 invasive cancers plus adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, whereas Hemoccult II identified 10 of 71 (40.8 percent vs. 14.1 percent, P<0.001). Among 418 subjects with advanced neoplasia (defined as a tubular adenoma at least 1 cm in diameter, a polyp with a villous histologic appearance, a polyp with high-grade dysplasia, or cancer), the DNA panel was positive in 76 (18.2 percent), whereas Hemoccult II was positive in 45 (10.8 percent). Specificity in subjects with negative findings on colonoscopy was 94.4 percent for the fecal DNA panel and 95.2 percent for Hemoccult II. Although the majority of neoplastic lesions identified by colonoscopy were not detected by either noninvasive test, the multitarget analysis of fecal DNA detected a greater proportion of important colorectal neoplasia than did Hemoccult II without compromising specificity. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.

                Author and article information

                Gut Liver
                Gut Liver
                Gut and Liver
                Editorial Office of Gut and Liver
                September 2018
                22 June 2018
                : 12
                : 5
                : 508-515
                [1 ]Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                [2 ]Genomictree, Inc., Daejeon, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Family Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                [4 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Young Sook Park, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, 68 Hangeulbiseong-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01830, Korea, Tel: +82-2-970-8207, Fax: +82-2-970-8621, E-mail: pys1109@ 123456eulji.ac.kr
                Copyright © 2018 by The Korean Society of Gastroenterology, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Korean Association the Study of Intestinal Diseases, the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology

                syndecan-2, methylation, feces, colorectal neoplasms, adenoma


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